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다른 사람들의 생각을 제한하지 말고 토론 페이지를 활요하시길 바랍니다. 누군가의 생각이 특별히 좋거나 나쁘다는 생각이 들면, 토론 페이지에 귀하의 생각을 적어주시면 됩니다.

Please try to limit the opinions of other people's ideas and save it for the discussion pages. If you think someone has a particularly good or bad idea, say so in the discussion page. This discussion/argument/feud can be noted in the article, but in a less familiar style.

Contents

단파 라디오를 통한 텍스트 방송

산악 지역과 같이 인터넷 접속이 힘든 곳에 단파라디오 신호를 보내면 어떨까요?

A major challenge is providing a continuing source of content for the OLPC. Access to the Internet in most of the regions of the world where children will benefit from the OLPC program is severely limited. However, most of these regions can receive shortwave radio signals, even in mountainous areas.

Rationale

OLPC는 정보 접근 도구이자 자습 도구입니다. 인터넷을 거치지 않고 메쉬만으로 정보에 접근할 수 있는 소규모의 신뢰할 만한 정보원을 구성하면 어떨까요?

The OLPC is (1) a tool for accessing information and (2) a tool for self-driven learning through investigation. A problem with the former role is "from whence cometh the information?". With the limited storage resources, "pre-loading" the information on the machines seems like an untenable approach. The crux of this proposal is that having easy and reliable access to a small library of information will be more useful than having spotty access to the entire Internet, even through mesh networking.

아이디어

Continuosly broadcast e-book content over shortwave radio with the same content repeating at different times of the day to work around intermittent reception areas. Have the books broken up into chunks, and all the texts from a library interleaved in time. If possible, transmit different interleaving sequences on a set of different channels. The basic circuitry for a shortwave radio demodulator can be very simple, particularly if the decoding is done in software sitting behind a straightforward RF and analog front-end. When a child wants information on a topic, the implemented system captures fragments of a text relating to the topic off the air, and over time, the whole text is collected.

I wouldn't suggest using software radio on this platform, implementing a hardware radio (which returns either unerrorcorrected binary or even better values between 0 to 255 for a bit is either 0 or 1) is very simple, even for relativly fast data transmission modes over "ordinary" AM amateur radio transmitting equipment. I'll try and post a very basic design for one on a USB port if I find time --Ikarus 00:35, 16 November 2006 (EST)

Example

Purely as an example, let the library of e-books being transmitted consist of

  1. Project Gutenberg texts http://www.gutenberg.org
  2. mathworld.wolfram.com
  3. Wikipedia.

All the content is broken up into packets of some size, encoded, all the packets interleaved according to some scheme, and the entire interleaved stream repeatedly transmitted. The infrastructure for transmitting the data streams need not even be in the nation or on the continent where the recipients are. Let, for example, the entire stream take two months to transmit. 4GB of encoded data at 1200 baud will take ~40 days. 1200 baud for a packet radio seems feasible, though I can't say how complex the hardware would be. Bear in mind we're only talking about receiving, not a full-blown modem. It could be as simple as a shortwave radio with a patch cord between its earphone jack and the microphone input of the OLPC.

Extensions

{{ Translated text | You can imagine having N different interleavings, which are transmitted on N different channels. When a child wants information on some topic, the request is sent out to at least N other OLPCs, over the mesh wireless network. All the machines start picking up chunks for the text on one of the N different channels. The chunks are sent to the requester over the mesh network. This is similar to the way in which the hosts on a P2P file sharing network cooperate to transfer files from far away into their local area.

Existing technology that can be adapted

There are various existing technologies that could be adopted or adapted to achieve this.

햄 라디오를 위한 디지털 시그널 프로세싱

햄 라디오 공동체는 약한 신호 전송 (그리고 데이터 수취) 부분에 있어 광범위한 경험이 있습니다. 단파 상에서 TCP/IP를 구동하는 도스 어플리케이션으로 유명한 개발자인 Phil Karn은 활용 가능한 어떤 작업을 진행했습니다. 지오이드 칩셋은 MMX 명령어를 가지므로 DSP 기능에 활용될 수 있습니다.

The Ham Radio community has a vast amount of experience with weak-signal transmission (and reception of data) beginning with slowscan TV back in the 60's. Phil Karn, the developer of a popular DOS application to run TCP/IP over shortwave, has done some work that could be used. The Geode chipset does have MMX instructions which can be used to do DSP functions.

Digital Radio Mondiale

국제적인 단파 방송에 활용될 수 있는 새로운 표준이 Digital Radio Mondiale라는 명칭으로 시작합니다. 이미 데이터 전송을 위해 할당되는 서브채널을 가집니다.

오픈소스 방식의 소프트웨어 Digital Radio Mondiale 디코더는 DReaM라는 이름으로 이미 존재합니다. 이것은 국제적인 방송들, BBC 월드서비스나 보이스 오브 아메리카 등을 디코드할 수 있으며, 싱글 사이드밴드 AM 역시 디코드 가능합니다. 상위 사이트밴드 디코딩이 플립 필터를 이용하므로, AM 디코드가 어려울 것 같지 않군요. FM 디코딩을 소프트웨어로 해결하고, 단순한 슈퍼햇 프론트 엔드가 추가된다면 완벽하겠군요. 어린이를 위해 기술적인 부분을 제거한 사용자 인터페이스를 제작할 필요가 있습니다.

There is a new standard that is now beginning to be used for international shortwave broadcasting called Digital Radio Mondiale. This already has a subchannel allocated for transmission of data.

An Open Source implementation of a software Digital Radio Mondiale decoder, called DReaM already exists.. It can decode international broadcasts, such as the BBC World Service, Voice of America etc. and can decode single sideband AM. As the decoding for Upper Sideband uses a flip filter, I can't see it being to hard to decode AM, and if FM decoding in software and a simple Superhet front end were added, would be perfect.. The User Interface would require modification as it is aimed at Radio Experimenters, and is too technical for children.

HF radio

햄 라디오 공동체는 PC의 사운드카드을 데이터 모뎀을 활용하여, 좁은 고주파수 (3-30 MHz) 채널로 저속 장거리 데이터 전송을 위한 성숙한 기술을 보유하고 있습니다. 이 기술은 멀리 떨어진 지역으로 이메일 전송에 활용될 수 있습니다.

일부 어린이들은 마을에서 멀리 떨어진 집에 살고 있을 것이므로, 정거리 데이터 전송은 그들이 네트워크에 접속하는데 도움이 될 것입니다.

The ham radio community has mature technology for sending data over long distances at low speeds over narrow high-frequency (3-30 MHz) channels using PC sound cards as data modems. This technology could be used for e-mail to remote regions.

I think this would be a good idea since some children live a mile or more in there towns and villages. Having data travel over long distances will help them keep in touch with each other through the network. I'm sure thought this will have to be approve by the IEEE as a new networking standard, but I'm sure this can be done.

라디오 방송 프로그램에 관한 또 하나의 역사적 노트

Back in the 8-bit era, when floppies were still not cheap enough, some computers had a cassette recorder so you could store your programs in cassette. A local radio used to broadcast Atari programs so you could record them at your radio receiver and then play them on your Atari. It wasn't very reliable, since line noise could spoil the recording, but it was a nice idea back then. .:

위성 방송

MIT의 테크놀로지 리뷰 웹 사이트에는 아프리카에서 사용 중인 협대역(128 Kb/s) 위성 방송에 관한 기사를 실고 있습니다. 학교에 업데이트 정보를 보내는데 활용 가능할 것입니다. http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=16786&ch=infotech

교육을 위한 위성 방송의 직접 활용 실험은 ATS-6 experimental satellite로 1970년대에 수행되었습니다. http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/dsh/artifacts/CS-ATS6.htm

{{{1}}}

USB 주변기기

OLPC네는 네 개의 USB 포트가 있으므로, 이를 활용한 라디오 시스템 액세서리를 만들 수 있습니다. 이것은 대단히 작은 크기로 전력 소모 역시 대단히 낮습니다.

Well, first of all, the OLPC has 4 USB ports. There is no reason why someone could not manufacture such a radio system as an accessory for the OLPC, to be used in those countries and those regions where this would be a good idea. This would most definitely be a dumb idea in the capital city of Thailand, for instance. But in mountainous western China it would be a very good idea, indeed.

For an example of how small an simple radio circuitry can be, look at this plan for a 3 penny radio. Note that he refers to using a lemonade battery to power it, i.e. electrodes dangling in a glass of lemonade. To use this as a shortwave receiver you just need to adjust the tuning circuitry to bring in the shortwave bands. Here is a circuit specifically for receiving shortwave bands that uses the same radio IC. A receiver like this could actually feed directly into the OLPC's microphone input, however some extra work could interface it with a USB port. This is an example of a microphone input via USB. If it was built as a USB device, it would be powered from the USB port and receive data in the background while the user reads e-books in monochrome mode.

Decoding the transmission in software is alot more "expensive" in terms of battery use then in hardware. --Ikarus 00:37, 16 November 2006 (EST)

Vertical retrace data channel

정보의 대량 다운로드를 위한 한 가지 방식으로, 적어도 TV 수신이 가능한 지역에서는, 데이터 전송을 위한 vertical retrace interval를 활용할 수 있습니다.

TV 신호는 매우 제한된 범위를 가지며, 서브채널을 기존의 AM 라디오 전송기로 활용하면, 그 범위를 엄청 확장시킬 수 있습니다. 또한 추가 비용도 별로 들지 않습니다.

One way to mass download info, at least in areas that have TV reception, is to use the vertical retrace interval to send data.

TV signals have a very limited range, using a subchannel on a existing AM radio transmitter (of any carrier frequency) increases the range tremendously, yet requires almost no expense for the organisation doing the transmissions, or the carrier. --Ikarus 00:39, 16 November 2006 (EST)

Miscellaneous

Support for this and mention of telesoftware and of MHP

소프트웨어의 단방향 순환적 방송인 telesoftware를 이용하여, 소프트웨어 패키지를 노트북에 전송할 수 있습니다.

아래 웹 사이트는 DVB-MHP (Digital Video Broadcasting - Multimedia Home Platform) 대화형 텔레비전 시스템을 다루고 있습니다.

http://www.mhp.org

디지털 라이오에 대해서는 http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~ngo/tor00000.htm 를 참조하십시오.

Yes, good idea.

You might like to consider using telesoftware, that is the unidirectional cyclic broadcasting of software and its selective use, to broadcast software packages for the laptop as well.

The following webspace about the DVB-MHP (Digital Video Broadcasting - Multimedia Home Platform) interactive televison system might be of interest.

http://www.mhp.org

The MHP system broadcasts Java programs to interactive television sets.

The following idea, not implemented as far as I know, might be of interest in relation to digital radio.

http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~ngo/tor00000.htm


William Overington

5 March 2006

There is now a page about the possibility of an MHP to laptop interface

There is now a page about the possibility of an MHP to laptop interface.

[[1]]

One way connection to internet helps nothing. This is passive usage like watching tv. Software distribution with USB is easy.

  • Yet in areas of the world where a two-way link is impossible, a one-way system where lots of software and data such as electronic textbooks can be received from direct to school broadcasts from a geosynchronous television broadcasting satellite and stored localy, telesoftware could be very advantageous.

Distance and the Mesh Network

As I understand these laptops will have intergraded wireless with the 802.11 b and g standards. The problem I see is that in some countries, like Africa, the children live sometimes a half mile or so apart from each other. The 802.11 b and g IEEE standard only has a reach of 100 feet or more with out modifications. This means the only time the children will be networked with each other is when they are at school. What needs to be done is the wireless in each laptop needs to reach up to at least a mile so the children’s computers are always connected to the network even in their home. The wireless b and g standard can be mod up to 10 miles of reach but to do that requires either a large antenna or an amplifier that would consume too much power. My suggestion is that you create a new wireless networking standard with low radio frequencies like every one has been suggesting. I would like to see it so the children’s computers are always part of the network when they are at home, because as I see it most of the programs on the laptop except the office programs can’t work with out a network.

  • Yeah, Thats true and current problem in commuication field. But i heard a new low-power, long-range communications technology called xMax®[2]. xMax uses single cycle modulation to boost the range of wired and wireless communication devices. Incorporated into products as a new physical layer PHY chipset, xMax also reduces a device's RF output power resulting in improved battery life and high data rate over a distance of about 13 miles.I think sounds like very good and i am request to OLPC team contact the xG Technologyfor using such technology in the OLPC project. If everything is done, The OLPC become a great project in the human era. Reason is good education is best mould of making best community. Muhammad Ismail .H 14:15, 15 July 2006 (IST)
    • WiMax [3] might be suitable for this.

Speeds and data integrity

If I remember my modem hardware correctly, 1200baud is simple FM over half of a telephone channel. This would be more like a FAX channel where the entire frequency width of the channel is available; all normal fax modulations have a baud rate of 2400, with bps of 4800 to 14400.

The processor in this machine would be more than enough to demodulate this in software and decode some serious forward error correction eg par files

컨텐트의 라디오 배포

기존적인 제안은 기존 라디오 방송 기술을 이용하여, 컨텐트를 노트북에 광범위하게 배포하는 방법인데, 먼저 마을의 어느 한 중심지로 보내면, 나머지는 메쉬로 각 노트북에 전달할 수 있습니다. 라디오는 기존의 유럽 디지털 방송 수신기인 USB DVB-T 수신기와 비슷할 것입니다. 마을마다 공유 라이버러리를 하나씩 설치하여 주기적으로 동일한 컨텐트를 방송해서 보내준다면, 마을 라이버러리는 대규모 저장 공간이 필요하지 않을 것입니다.


MHP는 이 기술의 가능한 활용을 제안한 페이지입니다.

The basic suggestion is to adapt existing technology for broadcasting data over the radio and use it as a widespread distribution tool for content to the laptops or, more likely, to some central site in the village. Once in the village it can be distributed further using the built-in wi-fi of the OLPCs. The radio would presumably be similar to existing USB DVB-T receivers available in Europe to receive digital television broadcasts. This could be done in one of two ways. One way is to fill up a shared library in each village. The other way is to constantly repeat the same documents so that villages do not need to have large storage capability.

MHP has been suggested as a possible source of this technology.

Mesh * xMax / MIMO = "The End of Telcos"

자동적으로 연결되는 '메쉬' 네트워크를 'xMax'를 이용하여 증폭한다음, 'MIMO'로 나눕니다.

모두가 노드이며, 다른 사람에게 전송 또는 수신하기 위해 '근접'해 있을 필요가 없습니다. 고속 및 다양한 소스를 활용함으로써, 많은 후프를 통해 인터넷 서버에 접근할 때는 레이턴시 문제를 피할 수 있습니다.

xMax의 낮은 전력 소모 역시 관심거리입니다.

Take the automagically connected 'mesh' network, multiply by 'xMax' and divide into 'MIMO'.

Everybody is a node, but needn't be 'near' each other and receives and transmits from and through every other user. The very high speed and the numerous sources could avoid the latency problem when accessing internet servers through many hops.

And the very low power consumption of xMax is an interesting asset indeed.

I back Muhammad Ismail .H 's claim: contact xG Technology, they should be very interested in producing something between 5 and 10 million chips for the OLPC.

(From:general-products) Single cycle AM frequency communications is far easier than people realise, as it can be handled by direct connection to a low speed CPU or equivalent. Im afraid Ive been trying to find someone to consider uses of my single cycle, chaos modulation method since 1997, and have dated notes to prove it, but am no good at all in selling or following up. Anyone who is interested is welcome to the hardware and software block diagrams, under Open Source style ideas. I also apologise for my belief that Bluetooth was deliberatly crippled from its initial form, to prevent it being used in such a Telco replacing Free Mesh network. See BT and South Wales Mesh network tests.(28/04/2007) (From:general-products)

--S112 04:39 16 August 2006 (EST)

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