XO DC Input

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This page attempts to detail the different tests that an XO (XO-1.5, XO-1.75) external DC power input should pass.

Contents

Extremes

These are static tests of the input protection circuitry:

Valid Input Voltage

The laptop shall operate normally, and charge a partially charged battery, when supplied with any voltage between 11V and 24V (inclusive).

The laptop shall accept a DC input with an AC ripple component up to 2V (peak-peak), provided that the peak input voltage never drops below 11V or exceeds 24V.

Overvoltage

The laptop shall not be damaged by the application of voltages up to 40V, for any length of time.

Applying a voltage higher than 40V shall not result in fire.

Applying a voltage higher than 40V, with adequate current available, shall destroy the internal fuse PF1, and render the laptop's DC input inoperable.

A destroyed internal fuse PF1 shall not prevent normal operation of the laptop using a battery.

Undervoltage

The laptop shall not draw power from the DC power input when supplied with voltages between 0V and 9V.

Negative Voltage

The laptop shall not be damaged by the application of a negative voltage up to -38V, for any length of time.

Applying a negative voltage larger than -38V shall not result in fire.

Applying a negative voltage larger than -38V, with adequate current available, may destroy the internal fuse.

Similarly, the laptop shall not be damaged by the application of an AC input of up to 76V P-P, and applying higher AC voltages shall not result in fire.

Maximum Power Draw

The laptop shall never draw more than 25 Watts of power from its DC power input.

This is usually tested with the laptop on and running processor tests in Open Firmware, while charging a low battery, which is a battery with open circuit voltage less than 5.6V.

Is running openfirmware at the ok prompt sufficient? e.g., on 1.75 i think OFW goes into a lower power state at the prompt. --Pgf 12:34, 23 March 2011 (UTC)

:pgf is correct; OFW does use idle state at the prompt. An easy way to enter the high power state is to type

 ok begin again

:Exiting from that state will require power-cycling. --wmb

The actual power limit depends on the laptop model. For XO-1, this was 17 Watts. For XO-1.5, this is 25 Watts. For XO-1.75, it is expected to be 15 Watts.

Temperature

The battery charging circuitry shall be fully functional when the ambient air temperature is between 0 and 45C (inclusive).

This shall be tested at 45C with a DC input voltage of 24V.

Normal Charging Behavior

These are tests of the normal charging behavior.

Definitions

  • a battery with state of charge of 89% or less is not-full state,
  • a battery with state of charge of 90% or greater is full state.

Full Charge Status Indicator

If a full battery is present in the laptop, and acceptable DC power is inserted, the battery indicator shall turn on with a green color.

If acceptable DC power is present, and a full battery is inserted into the laptop, the battery indicator shall turn on with a green color.

When a full battery is present in a laptop, and DC power or the battery is removed, the battery indicator shall turn off.

Ability to Charge a Battery

At the moment charging starts when SOC drops below 90%, and stops when Vbat = 7.4V and Ibat < 115mA, according to Richard. After charging ceases, the state of charge shall be 90% or greater. We don't currently display 100% in Sugar or Open Firmware. --Quozl

Start on battery insertion

If a battery that is not-full is inserted into a laptop (either turned on or off) which has DC power applied, the laptop shall charge the battery to the full state.

Start on DC insertion

If DC power is inserted in a laptop (either turned on or off) which has a battery that is not-full, the laptop shall charge the battery to the full state.

Consistency of indicators

While the battery is being charged, the battery indicator shall be turned on with a yellow color.

When the battery is being charged and the battery indicator is yellow, if the DC power or the battery is removed, the battery indicator shall turn off.

Performance

Charging to full state shall take no more than 120 minutes, starting from a fully discharged battery (SOC < 20%), and assuming adequate power from DC input.

Conditions

These tests shall be performed with a DC input voltage of 11V, 12V-14V, and 24V, with adequate current.

Power Draw when Turned Off

When the laptop:

  • is switched off, and;
  • no external DC power is provided,

then the power draw of the laptop from the battery shall not exceed 2 mA.

Power Brownout while Charging

The laptop shall tolerate quick interruptions in DC power input without disturbing the battery charging. It must be confirmed that the battery charging continues properly, not just that the indicators indicate that charging is continuing.

Method: A laptop is turned on with a discharged battery (10% < SOC < 20%). A DC power source (12-14VDC) is connected. The battery should start to charge. The DC power source is then interrupted (turned off or disconnected) for one minute out of every ten minutes. The battery should be fully charged within 150 minutes.

Seen as Trac 9983.

I've seen the "inconsistent indicator" failure on my motorcycle, presumably induced by the brownout during cold start of the bike. This brownout may not be as "clean" as simple disconnect/reconnect. --Pgf 12:39, 23 March 2011 (UTC)

Behavior with a Low Battery

Many battery system malfunctions are triggered by a battery with very little charge remaining.

Definitions

  • a battery with state of charge less than 10% is considered critically low,
  • a battery with voltage of 5.4V or lower is considered deeply discharged.

Ability to Trickle Charge a Battery

Trickle charging is the process of slowly charging a deeply discharged battery up to the point where it can be charged at a normal rate. The problem is that the voltage of a deeply discharged battery (less than or equal to 5.4V) is lower than that required to maintain proper operation of the laptop.

If a deeply discharged battery is inserted into a laptop (either turned on or off) which has DC power applied, the laptop shall trickle charge the battery, then continue charging it to the full state. While the battery is being trickle charged, the battery indicator shall regularly flash a yellow color. When regular charging is started, the indicator shall change to solid yellow. This charging process should take no more than 180 minutes.

If DC power is inserted in a laptop (turned off) which has a deeply discharged battery, the laptop shall trickle charge the battery, then continue charging it to the full state. While the battery is being trickle charged, the battery indicator shall regularly flash a yellow color. When regular charging is started, the indicator shall change to solid yellow.

When the battery is being trickle charged and the indicator is flashing yellow, if the DC power or the battery is removed, the battery indicator shall turn off. (It is likely that at this time the laptop will not operate from the battery without further charging.)

As the battery charger does not interrupt the EC to indicate the change from trickle charge to regular charge, a delay of up to four minutes between the actual change of state and the change in battery indicator behavior is allowed.

Ability to Fully Charge a Deeply Discharged Battery

The laptop shall reliably take a deeply discharged battery, trickle charge it back to an acceptable voltage, then continue to charge it to full.

We have had cases where after coming out of trickle charge the charging system did not proceed to fully charge the battery. See Trac 9251.

Indication of Critically Low Battery

The laptop shall indicate that the battery is critically low by turning the battery indicator on to a red color when the laptop is turned on.

Seen as Trac 3610, Trac 5858, and Trac 10033.

No Critically Low Battery Indicator when Turned Off

The laptop shall not indicate a critically low battery status when the laptop is turned off.

Seen as Trac 10668.

If external DC power is inserted, the critically low battery status (red battery indicator) should be replaced with either the charging status (yellow battery indicator) or trickle charging status (blinking yellow battery indicator).

Note that on XO-1 with the laptop turned off, EC will wake on game key press, display critically low for a few seconds, and then go back to sleep extinguishing the LED. Q2E45. --Quozl 22:29, 23 March 2011 (UTC)

Inserting Power while Battery is Low

Applying power to the laptop while the battery is low or critically low shall not cause the laptop to power off.

Seen as Trac 2182.

Suspend/Resume

In general, all tests should operate identically whether or not the laptop is suspended. Historically, we have had some problems in these areas:

Inserting Power while Suspended

If power is supplied to the DC power input while the laptop is suspended, the laptop should automatically begin powering itself from the external power source. If necessary, the battery should begin charging. All indicators (power and battery LEDs) should properly indicate that external power has been supplied.

Removing Power while Suspended

If power is removed from the DC power input while the laptop is suspended, the laptop should continue operation from battery. All indicators (power and battery LEDs) should properly indicate this loss of external power.

Seen as Trac 10369.

Solar

These test the operation of the laptop with panels of solar cells as a power source.

Traditionally, this is the area where we don't test enough. It is important to realize that if the laptop is using solar power as a source, it is almost always receiving less power than it wants!

Stability with Underpowered Solar Panels

This test simulates the operation of the laptop battery charger when powered by an under-illuminated, under-powered solar panel.

A typical example is a desire to charge the laptop batteries using a solar panel which outputs 10 Watts max. In less than optimum solar conditions, this panel may only output 3 to 6 Watts. A simple model of a solar panel is a voltage source with a resistor in series. The open circuit voltage may be quite high, up to 24V, and the equivalent series resistance may be considerable, up to 30 ohms.

A laptop, turned off, shall attempt to charge a battery (SOC < 20%) from such a solar cell simulator, with an equivalent series resistance of 10 ohms (20W). When the open circuit voltage is slowly swept from 8 to 24V, and back down again (over a time period of at least four minutes), the circuit shall show no oscillation of the battery charger operation, as indicated by either a whining sound or oscillation of the AC_IN signal to the EC.

This test shall be repeated with an equivalent series resistance of 30 ohms (20W).

Both tests (using resistances of 10 and 30 ohms) shall be repeated with the laptop turned on and running Open Firmware.

Stability with Cold Underpowered Solar Panels

A laptop, turned off, shall attempt to charge a battery (SOC < 20%) from a solar cell simulator, with an equivalent series resistance of 30 ohms. When the open circuit voltage is slowly swept from 8 to 30V, and back down again (over a time period of at least four minutes), the circuit shall show no oscillation of the battery charger operation, as indicated by either a whining sound or oscillation of the AC_IN signal to the EC.

Charging from Underpowered Solar Panels

A laptop, turned off, shall attempt to charge a battery (SOC < 20%) from a solar cell simulator with an open circuit voltage of 22V and an equivalent series resistance of 20 ohm. The laptop shall indicate that battery charging is taking place by the battery indicator turning on yellow. The battery shall be fully charged (SOC = 100%) in no more than 300 minutes.

Maximum Power Point Tracking

MPPT unfortunately requires a real solar cell or solar cell simulator to test.

Insert test procedure here

Multiple Laptops Sharing a Solar Panel

Multiple laptops should be able to share a solar panel which has an adequate power rating.

Four laptops, turned off, shall attempt to charge their batteries (SOC < 20%) from a solar cell simulator with an open circuit voltage of 22V and an equivalent series resistance of 5 ohm (25W). The laptops shall all indicate that battery charging is taking place by the battery indicator turning on yellow. Their batteries shall be fully charged (SOC = 100%) in no more than 300 minutes.

Error Conditions

These are tests of error conditions likely to occur:

Shorted cell/Imbalanced Cells

A battery with either a shorted cell or greatly imbalanced cells provides a very low voltage.

These should be identified as deeply discharged by the system, but will continue to trickle charge indefinitely. There should be no overheating of the battery or battery charger components after 24 hours of trickle charging (even at 50C ambient air temperature), and no damage to the battery charger components.

Non-communicative Battery

A non-communicative battery is one which has a defective one-wire communications channel or gas gauge. The battery cells themselves may still hold power, but the laptop cannot tell that a battery is present, what type it is, or what its state of charge might be.

When a non-communicative battery is inserted into a laptop (turned on or off) powered by an external DC power source, the laptop may draw power from the battery but shall not supply power to the battery.

When external power is inserted in a laptop which has a non-communicative battery, the laptop shall not supply power to the battery.

Invalid Battery EEPROM Data

We occasionally see corruption of the data stored in the EEPROM in the battery gas gauge.

If such an invalid battery is inserted into a laptop (turned on or off) powered by an external DC power source, the laptop may draw power from the battery but shall not supply power to the battery. It shall indicate this condition by flashing red the battery indicator.

When external power is inserted in a laptop which has an invalid battery, the laptop shall not supply power to the battery. It shall indicate this condition by flashing red the battery indicator.

Seen as Trac 9857.

EC Boot Failure

A failure of the Embedded controller to boot shall not further damage the hardware.

Tests shall include inserting a battery into such a failed laptop which is powered externally, and applying DC power to such a failed laptop which has a low (SOC < 20%) battery present. There should be no power supplied to the battery.

Missing P+ or P-

A battery that is missing connector pins for P+ or P- shall not damage the laptop.

A laptop that has missing conductors for P+ or P- shall continue to be usable if adequate power is provided on the DC input.

Also, in the case of missing P+, despite successful communication with the battery, the laptop shall not be damaged by either an attempt to discharge or charge.

Required Test Equipment

The equipment required to perform these tests is:

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