Hardware specification

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{{OLPC}}
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=Laptop Hardware=
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The '''XO-1''' laptop is a central focus of One Laptop Per Child.  After three years of development, it entered mass production in November 2007.  There are now [[Deployments|millions of units deployed in the field]], and thousands more with developers and for testing in schools all over the world.
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OLPC has developed newer hardware generations [[XO-1.5]] and [[XO-1.75]] that share the XO-1's industrial design.
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The XO laptop is the center of One Laptop Per Child.  After two years of development, it is approaching mass production, with several thousand Beta test (B2) units deployed to developers and for testing in schools in participating countries. The laptop design has just undergone a final minor update to keep up with advancements in technology.
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== Specifications ==
== Specifications ==
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* Graphics Controller: Integrated with Geode CPU; unified memory architecture
 
[[Image:drawing75c1.jpg|thumb|right]]
[[Image:drawing75c1.jpg|thumb|right]]
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[[Image:Olpc XO dim-Optimized.png|thumb|Dimensioned Drawing of XO, click to enlarge]]
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''Physical dimensions:''
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The [[Media:CL1A_Hdwe_Design_Spec.pdf|definitive laptop specification]] is only available in PDF format.  This page attempts to accurately reflect that information.
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* Dimensions: 242mm × 228mm × 30mm (approximate, subject to change)
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''Note: this is the specification of the CL1A XO-1 production laptop. The specification for the earlier CL1 version (with the wide dual-mode touchpad) is [[Media:CL1A_Hdwe_Design_Spec.pdf|here]].''
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* Weight: Less than 1.5 KG (target only — subject to change)
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* Configuration: Convertible laptop with pivoting, reversible display; dirt and moisture resistant system enclosure
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''Core electronics:''
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===Physical dimensions===
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* CPU: [http://www.amd.com/us-en/assets/content_type/DownloadableAssets/33358e_lx_900_productb.pdf AMD Geode LX-700@0.8W]
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* Approximate dimensions: 242mm × 228mm × 32mm (see drawing to the right for detailed dimensions)
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* CPU clock speed: 433 Mhz
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* Approximate weight:
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* Compatibility: Athlon instruction set (including MMX and 3DNow! Enhanced) with additional Geode-specific instructions
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** XO laptop with LiFePO4 battery: 1.45KG (~3.20lbs);
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* North Bridge: PCI and Memory Interface integrated with Geode CPU
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** XO laptop with NiMH battery:  1.58KG (~3.48lbs);
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* Graphics Controller: Integrated with Geode CPU, using a unified memory architecture
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* Configuration: Convertible laptop with pivoting, reversible display; dirt- and moisture-resistant system enclosure; no fan.
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* South Bridge: [http://www.amd.com/us-en/ConnectivitySolutions/ProductInformation/0,,50_2330_9863_9864%5E13054,00.html AMD CS5536] ([http://www.amd.com/files/connectivitysolutions/geode/geode_lx/33238f_cs5536_ds.zip datasheet])
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* DRAM memory: 256 MiB dynamic RAM
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===Core electronics===
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** Data rate: Dual – DDR333 – 166 Mhz
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* A photo of the [[XO Motherboard|XO-1 motherboard]] is available, with or without annotations.
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* BIOS: 1024 KB SPI-interface flash ROM; LinuxBIOS open-source BIOS; Open Firmware bootloader
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* CPU: x86-compatible processor with 64KB each L1 I and D cache; at least 128KB L2 cache;
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* Mass storage: 1024 MiB SLC NAND flash, high speed flash controller
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** [http://www.amd.com/files/connectivitysolutions/geode/geode_lx/33234G_LX_databook.pdf Datasheet]
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* Drives: No rotating media
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* CPU clock speed: 433 Mhz;
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* Embedded Controller: ENE KB3700: [[Image:KB3700-ds-01.pdf]]
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* i586 instruction set (including MMX and 3DNow! Enhanced) with additional Geode-specific instructions
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* Companion chips: PCI and memory interface integrated with CPU;
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** North Bridge: PCI and Memory Interface integrated with Geode CPU ([http://www.amd.com/us-en/ConnectivitySolutions/ProductInformation/0,,50_2330_9863_13022%5E13073,00.html info])
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** South Bridge: [http://support.amd.com/us/Embedded_TechDocs/33238G_cs5536_db.pdf datasheet]
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* Graphics controller: Integrated with CPU; unified memory architecture;
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* Embedded controller: ENE KB3700 or ENE KB3700B;
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** [[Ec_specification|Embedded Controller]]: [[Media:KB3700-ds-01.pdf|ENE KB3700]]
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* DRAM memory: 256 MiB dynamic RAM; data rate: dual-DDR333-166Mhz;
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* BIOS: 1024KiB SPI-interface flash ROM;  
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* Open Firmware used to load the operating system;
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* Mass storage: 1024 MiB SLC NAND flash; (a few "Red XOs" have been built with 2048 MiB of flash)
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* Drives: No rotating media.
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* CAFE ASIC (camera- and flash-enabler chip provides high-performance camera, NAND FLASH and SD interfaces); Marvell 88ALP01: [http://www.marvell.com/products/pcconn/88ALP01.jsp CAFE Specification] or [http://wiki.laptop.org/images/5/5c/88ALP01_Datasheet_July_2007.pdf local copy] plus [http://dev.laptop.org/ticket/1339#comment:17 presence detect erratum]
[[Image:Proto-a-front.jpg|thumb|Prototype-A Motherboard]]
[[Image:Proto-a-front.jpg|thumb|Prototype-A Motherboard]]
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''Display:''
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{{anchor|Display}}
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* Liquid-crystal display: 7.5” Dual-mode TFT display
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* Viewing area: 152.4 mm × 114.3 mm
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===Display===
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* Resolution: 1200 (H) × 900 (V) resolution (200 dpi)
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{{main|Display}}
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* Mono display: High-resolution, reflective monochrome mode
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* [[Display | Liquid-crystal display]]: 7.5” dual-mode TFT display;
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* Color display: 800 (H) x 600 (V) or greater transmissive color mode
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* Viewing area: 152.4 mm × 114.3 mm;
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* Power Consumption: 0.1 Watt with backlight off; 0.2-1.0 Watt with backlight on
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* Two "modes" depending on lighting conditions:  
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* The [[:Image:DCON_Specification%2C_V0.8.odt|DCON - Display Controller chip]] with memory that enables the display to remain live with the processor suspended. The display and this chip are the basis of our extremely low power architecture. The machine is usable and relaying mesh networking traffic while the CPU and much of the motherboard is regularly turned off.  The display controller chip also enables deswizzling and anti-aliasing in color mode.  You can examine this photograph of the display (it looks even nicer in person; photographing a display is remarkably difficult).
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:(1) Grayscale (B&W) reflective mode: for outdoor use—sunlight-readable; primarily lit from the front by ambient light; high-resolution (200 DPI), 1200(H) × 900(V) grayscale pixels; power consumption 0.1–0.2Watts;
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: ''Note: web browser images are currently scaled up so that an image of very roughly [800x600] fills up the browser window.''
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:(2) Color, backlight mode: for indoor use; primarily lit from behind by the LED backlight; built in sub-pixel sampling of the displayed color information results in a perceived resolution of at least 1024(H) × 768(V); power consumption 0.2–1.0Watts;
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* The [[DCON|display-controller chip (DCON)]] with memory that enables the display to remain live with the processor suspended. The DCON also formats data for the display.
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* This [[Display | Liquid-crystal display]] is the basis of our extremely low power architecture. The XO is usable while the CPU and much of the motherboard is regularly turned off (and on) so quickly that it's imperceptible to the userHuge power savings are harvested in this way (e.g. by turning stuff on the motherboard off when it's not being used (if even for a few seconds), while keeping the display on).  
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[[Image:EToys - new display.jpg|thumb|right|eToys ([[Squeak]])running on the OLPC display]]
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: ''Note: web browser images are currently scaled up so that an image of very roughly [800 × 600] fills up the browser window.''
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''Integrated peripherals:''
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* Keyboard: 70+ keys, 1.2mm stroke; sealed rubber-membrane key-switch assembly
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[[Image:EToys - new display.jpg|thumb|right|[[Etoys]] running on the first OLPC display prototype]]
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===Integrated peripherals===
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* Keyboard: 80+ keys, 1.0mm stroke; sealed rubber-membrane key-switch assembly;
** [[OLPC_Keyboard_layouts|Keyboard Layouts]]
** [[OLPC_Keyboard_layouts|Keyboard Layouts]]
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** Layout pictures (for B3)- [[:Image:Keyboard_english.jpg|US International]], [[:Image:Keyboard thai.jpg|Thai]], [[:Image:Keyboard arabic.jpg|Arabic]], [[:Image:Keyboard spanish.jpg|Spanish]], [[:Image:Keyboard portuguese.jpg|Portuguese]], [[:Image:Keyboard west africa.jpg|Nigeria]], [[:Image:Keyboard urdu.jpg|Urdu]], [[:Image:Keyboard azerty.jpg|French]]
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** Layout pictures: [[:Image:Keyboard english.png|English]], [[:Image:Keyboard arabic.png|Arabic]], [[:Image:Keyboard thai.png|Thai]], [[:Image:NG-MP-alt.png|West African (Nigeria)]], [[:Image:BR-MP-v1.png|Portuguese]], [[:Image:ES-MP-v1.png|Spanish]], [[:Image:Ethiopic-B3.png|Amharic]], [[:Image:Rwanda-B3.png|French]], [[:Image:Urdu-MP.png|Urdu]], [[:Image:RU-MP-v1.png|Cyrillic]], [[:Image:TR-MP-v1.png|Turkish (not final)]], [[:Image:NP-MP-v1.png|Nepali]], [[:Image:MO-MP-v1.png|Mongolian]], [[:Image:KA-MP-v1.png|Kazakh]], [[:Image:MR-MP-v2.png|Devanagari]], [[:Image:UZ-MP.png|Uzbek]], [[:Image:PS-MP.png|Pashto]], [[:Image:AF-MP.png|Dari]], [[:Image:FF-MP.png|Pulaar (Fula)]], [[:Image:IT-MP.png|Italian]]
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* Cursor-control keys: five-key cursor-control pad; four directional keys plus Enter
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* Gamepad: Two sets of four-direction cursor-control keys;
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* Touchpad: Dual capacitance/resistive touchpad; supports written-input mode
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* Touchpad: Capacitance touchpad
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* Audio: [http://www.analog.com/en/prod/0%2C2877%2CAD1888%2C00.html Analog Devices AD1888], AC97-compatible audio codec; stereo, with dual internal speakers; monophonic, with internal microphone and using the [http://www.analog.com/ Analog Devices SSM2302] for audio amplification
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** ALPS Electric [[Touch Pad/Tablet|Dual capacitance/resistive touchpad]];
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* Audio: AC’97 compatible audio subsystem; Internal stereo speakers and amplifier; internal monophonic microphone; jacks for external headphones or microphone;
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** [http://www.analog.com/en/prod/0%2C2877%2CAD1888%2C00.html Analog Devices AD1888] and [http://www.analog.com/en/audiovideo-products/audio-amplifiers/ssm2302/products/product.html Analog Devices SSM2302] for audio amplification
[[Image:AP1 15.jpg|thumb|100px|Keyboard detail]]
[[Image:AP1 15.jpg|thumb|100px|Keyboard detail]]
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* [[Wireless]]: Marvell [[Libertas]] 88W8388+88W8015, 802.11b/g compatible; dual adjustable, rotating coaxial antennas; supports diversity reception
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* Camera: integrated color video camera; 640 x 480 resolution at 30 FPS; independent (and undefeatable by software) display of microphone and camera recording status; the camera and device driver support disabling AGC and automatic color balancing, to enable its use as a photometric sensor for educational applications;
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* Status indicators: Power, battery, WiFi; visible lid open or closed
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** [http://www.ovt.com/products/detail.php?id=73 Omnivision OV7670]
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* Video camera: 640x480 resolution, 30FPS
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* [[Wireless| Wireless Networking]]: Integrated 802.11b/g (2.4GHz) interface; 802.11s (Mesh) networking supported; dual adjustable, rotating antennas support diversity reception; capable of mesh operation when CPU is powered down;
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* Independent and undefeatable by software display of microphone and camera recording status
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** Marvell [[Libertas]] wireless chipset, [[88W8388]] controller and [[88W8015]] radio
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* Status indicators: Power, battery, and WiFi (2), visible with lid open or closed; Microphone In-Use, and Camera In-Use, visible when lid is open.
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===External connectors===
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* DC power: 6mm (1.65mm center pin) connector; 11 to 18 V input usable, –32 to +40V input tolerated; power draw limited to 17 W; - see power connector dimensions at [[Battery and power#Mechanical|Battery and power]].
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* Headphone output: standard 3.5mm 3-pin switched stereo audio jack;
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* Microphone input: standard 3.5mm 2-pin switched mono microphone jack; selectable 2V DC bias; selectable sensor-input mode (DC or AC coupled);
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* USB: Three Type-A USB 2.0 connectors; Up to 1A power supplied (total);
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* Flash Expansion: [[SD]] Card slot.
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''External connectors:''
 
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* Power: 2-pin DC-input, 10 to 20 V usable input.  Input can safely handle -40 to 39 V. input. Exceeding this range will likely blow a one-time fuse.
 
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* Line output: Standard 3.5mm 3-pin switched stereo audio jack
 
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* Microphone: Standard 3.5mm 2-pin switched mono microphone jack; selectable input mode:
 
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** Sensor, DC w. 2.5 V (3K ohm impledance) bias voltage for switches, resistive sensors, etc.
 
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** Sensor, DC w. no bias voltage for measuring voltages (0 - 3 V)
 
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** External Microphone, AC w. bias voltage
 
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* Expansion: 3 Type-A USB-2.0 connectors; MMC/SD Card slot
 
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* Maximum power: 1 A (total)
 
[[Image:Rotate-1.jpg|thumb|Connectors]]
[[Image:Rotate-1.jpg|thumb|Connectors]]
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''Battery:''
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===Battery===
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* Fully-enclosed “hard” case; user removable
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* Pack type: 2 or 4 cells LiFePO4; or 5 cells NiMH, approx. 6V series configuration (subject to change);
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* Pack type: 4 Cells, 6V series configuration
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* Capacity: 16.5 Watt-hours (NIMH), 22 Watt-hours (LiFeP);
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* Two chemistries:
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* Fully-enclosed “hard” case; user removable;
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**NIMH, with a capacity of 16.5 Watt-hours
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* Electronics integrated with the pack provide:
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**LiFeP, with a capacity of 22 Watt-hours
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** Identification;
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* Electronics integrated with pack provide:
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** Battery charge and capacity monitoring chip ([[Media:DS2756.pdf|Maxim DS2756 data sheet]]);
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** Identification
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** Thermal and over-current sensors along with cutoff switch to protect battery;
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** Battery charge and capacity information
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* Minimum 2,000 charge/discharge cycles (to 50% capacity of new).  
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** Thermal and over-current sensors along with cutoff switch to protect battery
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* Cycle life: Minimum 2,000 charge/discharge cycles (to 50% capacity of new, IIRC).
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* [[Power Management]] will be critical
* [[Power Management]] will be critical
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See [[Laptop Batteries]] or more information.
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[[Image:Bottomdrawing.jpg|thumb|Battery]]
[[Image:Bottomdrawing.jpg|thumb|Battery]]
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''BIOS/loader:''
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===BIOS/loader===
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* [http://www.linuxbios.org/index.php/Main_Page LinuxBIOS] is our BIOS for production units; Open Firmware is used as the bootloader.
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* [[Open Firmware]] (including hardware initialization and fast resume).
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* Panasonic ML1220 battery
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''Environmental specifications:''
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===Environmental specifications===
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* Temperature: somewhere in between typical laptop requirements and Mil spec; exact values have not been settled
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* Temperature: UL certification planned to 45C in Q32007, pending 50C certification in mid-2008;
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* Humidity: Similar attitude to temperature. When closed, the unit should seal well enough that children walking to and from school need not fear rainstorms or dust.
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* Humidity: UL certification planned to [[IP_Code|IP42]] (perhaps higher) when closed, the unit should seal well enough that children walking to and from school need not fear rainstorms and dust;
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* Altitude: -15m to 3048m (14.7 to 10.1 psia) (operating), -15m to 12192m (14.7 to 4.4 psia) (non-operating
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* Maximum altitude: –15m to 3048m (14.7 to 10.1 PSIA) (operating), –15m to 12192m (14.7 to 4.4 PSIA) (non-operating);
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* Shock: 125g, 2ms, half-sine (operating) 200g, 2ms, half-sine (non-operating)
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* Shock 125g, 2ms, half-sine (operating) 200g, 2ms, half-sine (non-operating);
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* Random vibration: 0.75g zero-to-peak, 10Hz to 500Hz, 0.25 oct/min sweep rate (operating); 1.5g zero-to-peak, 10Hz to 500Hz, 0.5 oct/min sweep rate (nonoperating)
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* Random vibration: 0.75g zero-to-peak, 10Hz to 500Hz, 0.25 oct/min sweep rate (operating); 1.5g zero-to-peak, 10Hz to 500Hz, 0.5 oct/min sweep rate (nonoperating);
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* 2mm plastic walls (1.3mm is typical for most systems).
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* 2-3mm plastic walls (1.3mm is typical for most systems).
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''Regulatory requirements:''
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===Regulatory requirements===
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* The usual US and EU EMI/EMC requirements will be met.
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[[File:RoHS_Restriction_of_Hazardous_Substances_Directive_Logo.png|right|220px]]
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* The laptop and all OLPC-supplied accessories will be fully UL and is RoHS compliant.
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* The usual US and EU EMI/EMC (electromagnetic-interference and electromagnetic-compatibility) requirements will be met;
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* The laptop meets IEC 60950-1, EN 60950-1, and CSA/UL 60950-1 specifications. It also complies with UL 1310 and UL 498.  In order to guarantee the safety of children using the laptop, it passes ASTM F 963;
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* The external power adapter complies with IEC, EN, and CSA/UL 60950-1;
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* The removable battery pack complies with IEC, EN, and CSA/UL 60950-1 and UL 2054;
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* [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/rohs_eee/legis_en.htm RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive – EU) compliant.]
==Laptop Development Schedule==
==Laptop Development Schedule==
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The XO laptop hardware development schedule has two more test unit builds (Beta Test 3 and Beta Test 4), before a final test build (C Test 1) on the final production line and mass production.  The Beta Test 3 build scheduled for early May will be the first one providing the processor and memory capabilities of the production version.
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On April 15, 2006, the first prototypes of the [[XO]], the [[XO_A|A1]] prototype boards, were first powered on.  Development continued with the [[XO_B1|B1]], the first complete prototype laptop, in November of 2006.  The [[XO_B2|B2]] laptops were the first to incorporate the CaFE chip, and was produced in small quantities for initial trials in January 2007.  In April of 2008 the design was refreshed with a faster processor and more memory/NAND flash.  The [[XO_B3|B3]] prototypes were the first test of this design.  Slight refinements were incorporated into the [[XO_B4|B4]], manufactured in June 2008, which is very similar to the production version of the laptop.  Finally, mass production started in November 2007 with the [[XO_C2|C2]] version.
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=== Pre-production Test Systems (CTest-1, or C1) ===
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Each prototype and production version is described in more detail separately: [[XO_A|A1]], [[XO_B1|B1]], [[XO_B2|B2]], [[XO_B3|B3]], [[XO_B4|B4]], [[XO_C1|C1]], '''[[XO_C2|C2]]'''
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This build is a very small number (200 or so) of laptops produced as a test of the manufacturing process on the main production line, and should happen in early fall.  A C1 laptop is hopefully identical to a production unit in all aspects...
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==Serial Adapter==
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[[Image:serialadapter.jpg|100px|right]]
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=== Beta Test 4 Systems (BTest-4, or B4) ===
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In order to conserve parts/space, while the motherboard does provide two serial ports for debugging (one populated in production), it does not provide voltage translators to fully implement the RS-232 protocol.  Thus a [[Serial_adapters|3.3V TTL to RS-232 (or USB) Adapter]] is needed.
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This build, scheduled for the middle of the summer, is the final chance to fix hardware and mechanical problems that were detected in the Beta Test 3 build of the XO.  Only a small number (200 or so) of these will be built for testing, as the injection molds for the plastic case have to be taken offline and duplicated to prepare for mass production (the Beta Test mold set will be retired after duplication).
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<br clear="all">
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== Other Documents ==
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No new features will be added to the laptop in this build.  This build is planned merely to test solutions to problems detected in the BTest-3 laptops.
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* A complete [[Repair Parts]] List is under development.
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* [[Media:XO-1_Schematics.pdf|Schematics]]
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=== Beta Test 3 Systems (BTest-3, or B3) ===
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This build, scheduled for May, is the first to use an updated design for the laptop.
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Noticeable improvements over BTest-2 include:
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* A faster, lower power processor: the Geode LX-700
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** 128 KB of L1 Cache, 128 KB of L2 Cache (vs. 32 KB of L1 cache)
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** Faster processor and memory clock (433/333 vs. 366/266)
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** 1.5 W typ. vs. 3 W typ.
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** Much better graphics processor, including support for rotated blits and depth conversion
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* More memory: 256 MB of SDRAM (vs. 128 MB)
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* A new hinge design allows greater tilt of the screen
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* An improved case design (addressing strength and water resistance)
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A very small number of BTest-3 units (around a hundred) will be built, all destined for hardware and low level software development.
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=== Beta Test 2 Systems (BTest-2, or B2) ===
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Approximately 2500 systems were built by Quanta and are being distributed. These are fully functional machines with CaFE asic's, and reflect some, but not all of the learning and improvements from testing of BTest-1. Much more information about the BTest-2 systems can be found in the [[BTest-2 Release Notes]]. Some of the details of the hardware design are to support the [[OLPC Human Interface Guidelines]].
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BTest-2 systems are almost identical visually with BTest-1.  BTest-3 will have more substantial physical differences.  An easy way to tell the difference between BTest-1 and BTest-2 is that BTest-1 keyboards have white lettering, and BTest-2 has black lettering.
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=== Beta Test 1 Systems (BTest-1) ===
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Approximately 875 systems were built by Quanta and were distributed. These are fully functional machines, but built before the rigorous testing that will now take place. Much more information about the BTest-1 systems can be found in the [[BTest-1 Release Notes]].
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=== Pre-BTest boards ===
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A small number of pre-BTest boards were built in preparation for building complete BTest systems. [[Btest_Boards|Developer information about B-test boards are here.]]
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=== Alpha Test Prototype Electronics ===
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Power up of the first OLPC electronics prototype boards occurred April 15, 2006.  Power and ground testing continued over the weekend, and formal debug and BIOS bring up started Monday, April 17, 2006 at Quanta Computer's labs in Taipei, Taiwan. By Wednesday, April 19, Linux was booting on the first generation prototypes.
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Photographs:
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* [[media:Proto-a-front.jpg|Component side OLPC circuit board]]
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* [[media:Proto-a-back.jpg|Back side of the OLPC circuit board]]
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* [[media:Proto-a-linux.jpg|Picture of Linux running with circuit board in the lab]]
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* [[media:Proto-a-screen.jpg|Picture of the screen of Linux running on the OLPC circuit board; fittingly, it shows a Chinese desktop]]
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== See also ==
== See also ==
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*[[Hardware]]
 
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Formerly part of this page:
Formerly part of this page:
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*[[Hardware uniqueness]]
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* [[Hardware uniqueness]]
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*[[Hardware design]]
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* [[Hardware design]]
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* [[Hardware modification]]
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=School Server Hardware=
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While the laptop is rightfully at the center of OLPC, a valuable peripheral is the [[School_server|school server]].    OLPC will be building and distributing school servers along with the laptops, to extend the storage and computation provided by each laptop, as well as providing a local library and a mesh portal to the Internet.
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Unlike the laptop, the [[School_server|school server]] is more of a [[XS_Server_Services|collection of services]] than a hardware platform.  In a manner identical to the laptop, OLPC will collaborate with manufacturing partners to provide a cost-efficient hardware platform for running the recommended software.  Unlike the laptop, the manufacturing collaboration will not be exclusive.  Individual countries will be free (even encouraged) to design and manufacture their own school servers running derivatives of the OLPC school server software.
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==XS==
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This will be the school server built for OLPC by Quanta.  It is still in the very early stages of design, but should reach early production volumes in late fall.  See the [[XS_Server_Specification#XS_Specifications|specification]].
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==XSX==
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This is a prototype school server, built for early school trials in country.  It will be integrated from off-the-shelf components, and will be overpowered compared to a production school server in order to simplify [[Trial1_Server_Software|early demands for system software]].  See the [[XS_Server_Specification#XSX_Specifications|specification]] and the [[XSX_Server_Implementation|implementation]].
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See also:
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* [[Hardware Testing]]: Safety Certifications and Robustness
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[[Category:hardware]]
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* [[Hardware]]  
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[[Category:developers]]
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* [[Support]]
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* The '''[[Media:CL1_Hdwe_Design_Spec.pdf|definitive laptop specification]]''' (only available in PDF format).
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[[category:Hardware]]
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[[Category:XO-1]]

Current revision as of 02:25, 29 October 2013

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The XO-1 laptop is a central focus of One Laptop Per Child. After three years of development, it entered mass production in November 2007. There are now millions of units deployed in the field, and thousands more with developers and for testing in schools all over the world. OLPC has developed newer hardware generations XO-1.5 and XO-1.75 that share the XO-1's industrial design.

Specifications

Dimensioned Drawing of XO, click to enlarge

The definitive laptop specification is only available in PDF format. This page attempts to accurately reflect that information. Note: this is the specification of the CL1A XO-1 production laptop. The specification for the earlier CL1 version (with the wide dual-mode touchpad) is here.

Physical dimensions

  • Approximate dimensions: 242mm × 228mm × 32mm (see drawing to the right for detailed dimensions)
  • Approximate weight:
    • XO laptop with LiFePO4 battery: 1.45KG (~3.20lbs);
    • XO laptop with NiMH battery: 1.58KG (~3.48lbs);
  • Configuration: Convertible laptop with pivoting, reversible display; dirt- and moisture-resistant system enclosure; no fan.

Core electronics

  • A photo of the XO-1 motherboard is available, with or without annotations.
  • CPU: x86-compatible processor with 64KB each L1 I and D cache; at least 128KB L2 cache;
  • CPU clock speed: 433 Mhz;
  • i586 instruction set (including MMX and 3DNow! Enhanced) with additional Geode-specific instructions
  • Companion chips: PCI and memory interface integrated with CPU;
    • North Bridge: PCI and Memory Interface integrated with Geode CPU (info)
    • South Bridge: datasheet
  • Graphics controller: Integrated with CPU; unified memory architecture;
  • Embedded controller: ENE KB3700 or ENE KB3700B;
  • DRAM memory: 256 MiB dynamic RAM; data rate: dual-DDR333-166Mhz;
  • BIOS: 1024KiB SPI-interface flash ROM;
  • Open Firmware used to load the operating system;
  • Mass storage: 1024 MiB SLC NAND flash; (a few "Red XOs" have been built with 2048 MiB of flash)
  • Drives: No rotating media.
  • CAFE ASIC (camera- and flash-enabler chip provides high-performance camera, NAND FLASH and SD interfaces); Marvell 88ALP01: CAFE Specification or local copy plus presence detect erratum
Prototype-A Motherboard

Display

Main article: Display
  • Liquid-crystal display: 7.5” dual-mode TFT display;
  • Viewing area: 152.4 mm × 114.3 mm;
  • Two "modes" depending on lighting conditions:
(1) Grayscale (B&W) reflective mode: for outdoor use—sunlight-readable; primarily lit from the front by ambient light; high-resolution (200 DPI), 1200(H) × 900(V) grayscale pixels; power consumption 0.1–0.2Watts;
(2) Color, backlight mode: for indoor use; primarily lit from behind by the LED backlight; built in sub-pixel sampling of the displayed color information results in a perceived resolution of at least 1024(H) × 768(V); power consumption 0.2–1.0Watts;
  • The display-controller chip (DCON) with memory that enables the display to remain live with the processor suspended. The DCON also formats data for the display.
  • This Liquid-crystal display is the basis of our extremely low power architecture. The XO is usable while the CPU and much of the motherboard is regularly turned off (and on) so quickly that it's imperceptible to the user. Huge power savings are harvested in this way (e.g. by turning stuff on the motherboard off when it's not being used (if even for a few seconds), while keeping the display on).
Note: web browser images are currently scaled up so that an image of very roughly [800 × 600] fills up the browser window.
Etoys running on the first OLPC display prototype

Integrated peripherals

Keyboard detail
  • Camera: integrated color video camera; 640 x 480 resolution at 30 FPS; independent (and undefeatable by software) display of microphone and camera recording status; the camera and device driver support disabling AGC and automatic color balancing, to enable its use as a photometric sensor for educational applications;
  • Wireless Networking: Integrated 802.11b/g (2.4GHz) interface; 802.11s (Mesh) networking supported; dual adjustable, rotating antennas support diversity reception; capable of mesh operation when CPU is powered down;
  • Status indicators: Power, battery, and WiFi (2), visible with lid open or closed; Microphone In-Use, and Camera In-Use, visible when lid is open.

External connectors

  • DC power: 6mm (1.65mm center pin) connector; 11 to 18 V input usable, –32 to +40V input tolerated; power draw limited to 17 W; - see power connector dimensions at Battery and power.
  • Headphone output: standard 3.5mm 3-pin switched stereo audio jack;
  • Microphone input: standard 3.5mm 2-pin switched mono microphone jack; selectable 2V DC bias; selectable sensor-input mode (DC or AC coupled);
  • USB: Three Type-A USB 2.0 connectors; Up to 1A power supplied (total);
  • Flash Expansion: SD Card slot.
Connectors

Battery

  • Pack type: 2 or 4 cells LiFePO4; or 5 cells NiMH, approx. 6V series configuration (subject to change);
  • Capacity: 16.5 Watt-hours (NIMH), 22 Watt-hours (LiFeP);
  • Fully-enclosed “hard” case; user removable;
  • Electronics integrated with the pack provide:
    • Identification;
    • Battery charge and capacity monitoring chip (Maxim DS2756 data sheet);
    • Thermal and over-current sensors along with cutoff switch to protect battery;
  • Minimum 2,000 charge/discharge cycles (to 50% capacity of new).
  • Power Management will be critical

See Laptop Batteries or more information.

Battery

BIOS/loader

  • Open Firmware (including hardware initialization and fast resume).
  • Panasonic ML1220 battery

Environmental specifications

  • Temperature: UL certification planned to 45C in Q32007, pending 50C certification in mid-2008;
  • Humidity: UL certification planned to IP42 (perhaps higher) when closed, the unit should seal well enough that children walking to and from school need not fear rainstorms and dust;
  • Maximum altitude: –15m to 3048m (14.7 to 10.1 PSIA) (operating), –15m to 12192m (14.7 to 4.4 PSIA) (non-operating);
  • Shock 125g, 2ms, half-sine (operating) 200g, 2ms, half-sine (non-operating);
  • Random vibration: 0.75g zero-to-peak, 10Hz to 500Hz, 0.25 oct/min sweep rate (operating); 1.5g zero-to-peak, 10Hz to 500Hz, 0.5 oct/min sweep rate (nonoperating);
  • 2-3mm plastic walls (1.3mm is typical for most systems).

Regulatory requirements

  • The usual US and EU EMI/EMC (electromagnetic-interference and electromagnetic-compatibility) requirements will be met;
  • The laptop meets IEC 60950-1, EN 60950-1, and CSA/UL 60950-1 specifications. It also complies with UL 1310 and UL 498. In order to guarantee the safety of children using the laptop, it passes ASTM F 963;
  • The external power adapter complies with IEC, EN, and CSA/UL 60950-1;
  • The removable battery pack complies with IEC, EN, and CSA/UL 60950-1 and UL 2054;
  • RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive – EU) compliant.

Laptop Development Schedule

On April 15, 2006, the first prototypes of the XO, the A1 prototype boards, were first powered on. Development continued with the B1, the first complete prototype laptop, in November of 2006. The B2 laptops were the first to incorporate the CaFE chip, and was produced in small quantities for initial trials in January 2007. In April of 2008 the design was refreshed with a faster processor and more memory/NAND flash. The B3 prototypes were the first test of this design. Slight refinements were incorporated into the B4, manufactured in June 2008, which is very similar to the production version of the laptop. Finally, mass production started in November 2007 with the C2 version.

Each prototype and production version is described in more detail separately: A1, B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2

Serial Adapter

In order to conserve parts/space, while the motherboard does provide two serial ports for debugging (one populated in production), it does not provide voltage translators to fully implement the RS-232 protocol. Thus a 3.3V TTL to RS-232 (or USB) Adapter is needed.


Other Documents

See also

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See also:

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