Languages

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This page looks at languages in terms of need in target countries, and availability in Linux.

Contents

Core languages for OLPC

Volunteers are needed to translate software into the languages of OLPC target countries. See Pootle for details.

These are languages important for our firmware messages, Sugar messages, interface strings for core activities, key web pages, and the like:

According to deployments

The Deployments page lists actual deployments and the primary languages they use, but these are restricted to values allowed for Property:Language spoken.

According to Deployments, here are the primary languages in use in actual deployments of more than 500 laptops: Spanish (OLPC Peru), Spanish (OLPC Uruguay), English (OLPC Rwanda), English (OLPC G1G1), Spanish (OLPC Argentina), Spanish (OLPC Mexico), English (OLPC Birmingham), English (OLPC Small groups), Kreyol (OLPC Haiti), English (OLPC Australia), English (OLPC G1G1 2008), English (OLPC Nigeria), Amharic, English, Kreyol (OLPC Ethiopia), English, Hindi, Bengali (OLPC India), Spanish (OLPC Nicaragua), English (OLPC Canada), (OLPC Oceania), English, Nepali (OLPC Nepal), Spanish (OLPC Colombia), Spanish (OLPC Paraguay), English (OLPC Misc), Spanish (OLPC Costa Rica), English (OLPCorps 2009), Spanish (OLPC Guatemala), Arabic (OLPC Palestinian territories), Arabic (OLPC Iraq), English (OLPC Ghana), Dari, English (OLPC Afghanistan), Khmer (OLPC Cambodia), English (OLPC South Africa), (OLPC Greece), and (OLPC Italy)

According a notion of "Tiers"

Tier 1: Spanish (es), English (en), Portuguese (pt)
Tier 2: Arabic (ar), Amharic (am), French (fr), Hebrew (he), Hindi (hi), Russian (ru), Thai (th)
Tier 3: Hausa (ha), Igbo (ig), Yoruba (yo), Kazakh (kk), Mongolian (mn), Nepali (ne), Marathi (mr), Romanian (ro), Turkish (tr), Urdu (ur)
Tier 4: Dari (prs) (Eastern Farsi (fa)), German (de), Italian (it), Korean (ko), Pashto (ps), Uzbek (uz), Chinese (zh), Khmer (km) other languages with keyboards, other official languages of green countries
other: Greek (el), Croatian (hr), Indonesian (id), Dutch (nl), Newari (new), other official languages of red countries
2007 Give One, Get One countries (not listed above): Kreyol Aiysyen (ht), Kinyarwanda (rw), Hazaragi (haz)

According to Pootle

http://dev.laptop.org/translate/languages/ lists the languages available in the OLPC Translation System , which presumably have some fraction of strings translated.

According to 2007 "green" countries

According to the obsolete list of "green" countries (see OLPC status by country in 2007, the languages for pilots back in 2007 were:

Amharic, Arabic, English, Spanish, French, Hausa, Hindi, Igbo, Nepali, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Kinyarwanda, Thai, Urdu, & Yoruba

Partner country official languages

Data on official languages from both Wikipedia and Ethnologue.

These sources often do not agree. The view on this page is that the more inclusive definition should be used, combining languages on both lists. Even if a language listed here is not formally adopted as an official language in the country of use, it is important enough for our purposes.

List from OLPC_world_map of launch countries, as of 16:53, 12 October 2007 (EDT): Argentina, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Libya, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Thailand, Uruguay & USA.

CountryOfficialOther Language(s)Region(s)
Argentina Spanishliving languages: 25
GuaraniCorrientes, Misiones
Brazil Portugueseliving languages: 188
China,
People's Republic of
Mandarin
(aka Putonghua)
living languages: 235
CantoneseHong Kong, Macau (de facto)
EnglishHong Kong
KazakhIli Kazakh
KoreanChangbai, Yanbian
MongolianInner Mongolia
PortugueseMacau
TajikTaxkorgan
TibetanTibet
UyghurXinjiang
ZhuangGuangxi
Daur- regional -
Kalmyk-Oirat- regional -
Lu- regional -
Peripheral Mongolian- regional -
Central Tibetan- regional -
Uyghur- regional -
Xibe- regional -
Northern Zhuang- regional -
Egypt (Egyptian) Arabicliving languages: 11
India Hindi
English
living languages: 415
sheduled officialAssameseAssam
sheduled officialBengaliTripura, West Bengal
sheduled officialBodoAssam
sheduled officialDogriJammu, Kashmir
sheduled officialGujaratiDadra, Nagar Haveli, Daman, Diu, Gujarat
sheduled officialKannadaKarnataka
sheduled officialKashmiriJammu, Kashmir
sheduled officialKonkaniGoa
sheduled officialMaithiliBihar
sheduled officialMalayalamKerala, Pondicherry, Lakshadweep
MeiteiManipur
sheduled officialMarathiMaharashtra
sheduled officialNepaliSikkim
sheduled officialOriyaOrissa
sheduled officialPunjabiPunjab
Sanskritclassical learning language
sheduled officialSantaliJharkhand
sheduled officialSindhiJammu, Kashmir
sheduled officialTamilTamil Nadu, Pondicherry
sheduled officialTeluguAndhra Pradesh, Pondicherry
sheduled officialUrduJammu, Kashmir
FrenchPondicherry Union Territory - only
Libya Arabic (std)living languages: 9
Nigeria Hausa
Igbo
Yoruba
English
living languages: 510
widely usedAdamawa, Edo, Efik, Fulfulde, Idoma, (central) Kanuri
Perú
Rwanda Kinyarwanda
French
English
living languages: 3
Source: Ethnologue
Thailand Thailiving languages: 74
Uruguay Spanish

Languages in Target Countries

Lists of languages of countries in discussions with OLPC, with links to priorities and status of OLPC-related language work in each, where available. All of these languages except Mongolian in its traditional alphabet can be entered, viewed, and printed in most distributions of Linux. Language support from one distribution can be easily added to almost any other. There are local OLPC organizations in several other countries.

Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba (the most important three of the eight official languages of Nigeria other than English) lack further support, including native keyboard layouts and locales. Mongolian is currently supported only in Cyrillic, not in its traditional alphabet.

Europe and America

(en) English

Primary source language for the Internet, and for high-tech in general. Easier to describe materials for which this is not true in this section.

Users and translators: See Category:User en

(fr) French

Users and translators: See Category:User fr

(de) German

Users and translators: See Category:User de

(pt) Portuguese

Main dialects: Brazilian and continental

Users and translators: See Category:User pt

(es) Spanish

Users and translators: See Category:User es

(ru) Russian

Users and translators: See Category:User ru

(uk) Ukrainian

Users and translators: See Category:User uk

East and Central Asia

(ru) Russian

Users and translators: See Category:User ru

(zh) Chinese

Main written dialects: simplified and traditional

Users and translators: See Category:User zh

(ja) Japanese

Users and translators: See Category:User ja

(ko) Korean

Users and translators: See Category:User ko

(mn) Mongolian

Users and translators: See Category:User mn

(bo) Tibetan

Users and translators: See Category:User bo

South Asia

(bn) Bengali

Users and translators: See Category:User bn

(gu) Gujarati

Users and translators: See Category:User gu

(hi) Hindi

Users and translators: See Category:User hi

(kn) Kannada

Users and translators: See Category:User kn

(ml) Malayalam

Users and translators: See Category:User ml

(mr) Marathi

Users and translators: See Category:User mr

(np) Nepali

Users and translators: See Category:User np

(or) Oriya

Users and translators: See Category:User or

(ps) Pashto

Users and translators: See Category:User ps

(pa) Punjabi

Users and translators: See Category:User pa

(ta) Tamil

Users and translators: See Category:User ta

(te) Telugu

Users and translators: See Category:User te

(th) Thai

Users and translators: See Category:User th

Sub-Saharan Africa

(ha) Hausa

Users and translators: See Category:User ha

(ig) Igbo

Users and translators: See Category:User ig

(yo) Yoruba

Users and translators: See Category:User yo

(rw) Kinyarwanda

Users and translators: See Category:User rw

Middle East and North Africa

(ar) Arabic

Users and translators: See Category:User ar

i18n & l10n

The following table is focused on the list of languages present in the currently 'green status' countries (Argentina, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Libya, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Thailand, United States, Uruguay). Countries with other 'status' may benefit from efforts for the 'green languages', plus add their own set of languages. Each language must be fully supported for the Localization effort.

Language Green Countries Red Countries Orange
Arabic Libya Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq (+), Israel (+), Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon (+), Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan (+), Syria (+), Tunisia, Yemen
English Nigeria,
Rwanda,
USA (+)
Belize (+), Pakistan (+), Philippines (+) Canada (+), Gambia, Guyana, India (+), Kenya (+), Mauritius (+), Namibia (+), Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sierra Leone, Singapore (+), South Africa (+), St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda (+), Zimbabwe (+)
French Rwanda Haiti (+) Benin, Cameroon (+), Democratic Republic of the Congo (+), Gabon, Mali, Niger, Senegal, St. Martin (+), Togo
Hausa Nigeria
Igbo Nigeria
Kinyarwanda Rwanda
Portuguese Brazil Angola Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe
Spanish Argentina,
Peru (+),
Uruguay,
USA (+)
Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala (+), Honduras, México (+), Nicaragua, Panamá, Colombia Bolivia (+), Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Paraguay (+), Puerto Rico (+), Spain (+), Venezuela (+)
Thai Thailand
Yoruba Nigeria
Other non-green languages Ethiopia, Indonesia, Philippines (+), Pakistan (+), Vietnam Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan (+), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, China (+), Croatia, Cyprus, Eritrea, Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India (+), Iran, Italy, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Moldova, Mongolia, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vatican City


The following table presents on a per country base the target languages that must be considered for the Localization effort of the countries with 'green status' (Argentina, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Libya, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Thailand, United States, Uruguay).

Country Target Languages Major/important languages Minor/relevant languages
Argentina
EthnologueAR
[spa] Spanish [quh] Quechua (0.85M - 2.1%) See OLPC Argentina/Languages
Brazil
EthnologueBR
[por] Portuguese none reported by Ethnologue BR above 50,000 speakers.
Ethiopia
EthnologueET
[amh] Amharic,
[eng] English,
[tir] Tigrigna language
see ethnologue see ethnologue
India
EthnologueIN
see ethnologue see ethnologue see ethnologue
Libya
EthnologueLY
[arb] Arabic, Standard [ayl] Arabic, Libyan Spoken (4.2M - 75%),
[jbn] Nafusi (0.14M - 2.5%)
[rmt] Domari (0.03M - 0.6%)
Nepal
EthnologueNP
see ethnologue see ethnologue see ethnologue
Nigeria
EthnologueNG
[eng] English,
[hau] Hausa
—(18.5M - 13.5%)
,
[yor] Yoruba
—(18.9M - 13.8%)
[bin] Edo (1.0M - 0.7%) official,
[efi] Efik (0.4M - 0.3%) official,
[fub] Fulfulde, Adamawa (7.6M - 5.6%) official,
[fuv] Fulfulde, Nigerian (1.7M - 1.2%),
[ibb] Ibibio (1.5M to 2.0M - 1.0-1.5%),
[idu] Idoma (0.6M - 0.4%) official,
[ibo] Igbo (18.0M - 13.1%) official,
[knc] Kanuri, Central (3.0M - 2.2%) official,
[tiv] Tiv (2.2M - 1.6%)
See OLPC Nigeria/Languages
Pakistan
EthnologuePK
see ethnologue see ethnologue see ethnologue
Peru
EthnologueNG
[spa] Spanish pending See OLPC Peru/Languages
Romania
EthnologueRO
see ethnologue see ethnologue see ethnologue
Russia
EthnologueRU
see ethnologue see ethnologue see ethnologue
Rwanda
EthnologueRW
[kin] Kinyarwanda,
[fra] French,
[eng] English
[swh] Swahili (0.01M - 1.3%)
Thailand
EthnologueTH
Thai (dialects?) [nan] Chinese, Min Nan (1.1M - 1.7%),
[kxm] Khmer, Northern (1.1M - 1.8%),
[mfa] Malay, Pattani (3.1M - 4.8%),
[tha] Thai (20.2M - 32%),
[tts] Thai, Northeastern (15.0M - 23%),
[nod] Thai, Northern (6.0M - 9.2%),
[sou] Thai, Southern (5.0M - 7.7%)
[ksw] Karen, S'gaw (0.3M - 0.5%),
[kdt] Kuy (0.3M - 0.5%)
Uruguay
EthnologueUY
[spa] Spanish none other reported by Ethnologue UY
USA
EthnologueUS
[eng] English [spa] Spanish (22.4M - 7.5%),
[___] Polish (3.4M - 1.1%),
[deu] German, Standard (6.1M - 2.0%),
[___] Arabic (3.0M - 1.0%)
[___] Armenian (1.1M - 0.4%),
[___] Chinese (1.6M - 0.5%),
[___] Czech (1.5M - 0.5%),
[___] Eastern Yiddish (1.3M - 0.4%),
[___] French (1.1M - 0.4%),
[frc] French, Cajun (1.0M - 0.3%),
[hwc] Hawai'i Creole English (0.6M - 0.2%),
[___] Italian (0.9M - 0.3%),
[___] Japanese (0.8M - 0.3%),
[___] Korean (1.8M - 0.6%),
[___] Philippines (1.4M - 0.5%),
[___] Portuguese (1.3M - 0.4%),
[___] Swedish (0.6M - 0.2%),
[___] Ukrainian (0.8M - 0.3%),
[___] Vietnamese (0.9M - 0.3%),
[___] Vlax Romani (0.7M - 0.2%),
[___] Western Farsi (0.9M - 0.3%)

External Links

Russia, preparatory training in university, and Russian language courses


See Also

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