OLPC Human Interface Guidelines/The Sugar Interface


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Security The Sugar Interface (discussion) The Sugar Interface


The Sugar Interface

Input Systems


The basic laptop keyboard layout.
Localized Keyboard Layouts
API Reference
Module: keymapping TBD

Softkey Sliders

The slider keys have two modes: "digital" and "analog." In digital mode, the discrete functions printed on the key caps are accessed, four per key. In analog mode, accessed with the Fn key, intermediate key codes are enabled—there are seven positions along the slider; intermediary postions are interpolated in software, turning each of the keys into a 13-position slider.

Keyboard Shortcuts

For the purposes of development, you may want to review the detailed specifications for keys and their codes on the Keyboard Layout page. For a complete list of agreed upon keyboard shortcuts in the Sugar environment, at both system and activity levels, please refer to the Keyboard Shortcuts page. Following is a high level description of the types of shortcuts the available keys should pertain to.

  • CTRL (U+25C6) will be the main modifier key. It will be used to define "base" shortcuts. For instance, ◆A will "select all" in a text editor.
  • ALT (U+25C7) should be used for optional modifications (or ALTernates) to base shortcuts. For instance, ◆S will perform a standard "keep" and ◇S could be "keep as...". ◆V is paste, ◇V is "paste and remove from clipboard."
  • SHIFT (U+21E7) can work in two ways. Its primary use would be as an inversion modifier, such that it inverts the meaning of the base shortcut. For instance, ◆Z is undo and ⇧◆Z is redo. ◆TAB is next activity, ⇧◆TAB is previous activity. SHIFT can also be used to create a second set of "base" shortcuts which are less often used.

The FN key is reserved solely for system level operations, and generally for those that map to functions which are printed on the keyboard itself.


The laptops employ a capacitive (finger controlled) trackpad.

Only the center region of the trackpad has capacitance, responding to a finger.

Trackpad as Mouse

The use of the finger on the central trackpad area serves as the primary input device for pointing. Though external USB mice will work seamlessly with the laptops, their availability will be limited, and activity designers should not expect that children will have access to them. This means that a certain lack of precision can be expected when moving the cursor about the screen, and activities should not require extremely precise motion. Excessively small controls should also be avoided for similar reasons; details on how to design interface elements reside in the Controls section.

In addition, the laptops have two buttons positioned beneath the trackpad for input. The left button is the primary button with which elements of the interface are selected, pressed, or activated. The right button has secondary functionality. Typically, the right mouse button invokes contextual menus, the content of which pertains directly to the interface element the mouse is positioned over.

Trackpad as Graphics Tablet

No stylus support is currently planned for the XO.

Microphone and Speakers

The laptop has a built-in microphone and stereo speakers to allow for voice communication and recording. You may integrate audio functionality directly into your activities by requesting access to this hardware in the Functional Manifest. There are also an external microphone and speaker jacks.

 Need a section on using sounds in activities; particularly in the background...


The laptops have built-in cameras to allow for still photography and video recording. You may integrate camera functionality directly into your activities by requesting access to this hardware in the Functional Manifest.

"Hand-held" Mode

The laptops feature a hand-held mode of operation in which the screen swivels around 180 degrees and folds flat, similar to a tablet PC. In this mode, the screen covers the keyboard and trackpad; however, the microphone and camera, mounted within the display bezel, remain available for use. Additionally, bezel-mounted controls provide auxiliary input suitable for the activities that Hand-held mode is designed to support: reading an eBook, playing games, etc.

Energy Saving Benefits

The laptop is engineered for extreme operating efficiency—a goal furthered by Hand-held mode. The CPU can be suspended while still displaying on-screen graphics. While reading an eBook, since the screen need only be updated when a page is changed, the time spent reading any given page requires no use of the CPU. The screen can run in reflective (daylight) mode—with the backlight off—for additional energy savings. These factors combine to create an extremely low-power, energy-efficient machine; Hand-held mode provides a usage scenario where maximal energy savings can be attained.

Implementing Hand-held Controls

Unlike a typical tablet PC, the OLPC laptop does not have a touch-sensitive screen. Primary user input comes from two bezel-mounted button sets: the D-pad (directional pad), which has 8 directions of articulation; and the button controller, which houses 4 discrete buttons (labeled ◯, ╳, △, ▢, on the B1 machine).

The Directional Buttons

The D-pad should not be, in general, used to move a cursor around the screen— in fact, the cursor will hide by default in Hand-held mode. Instead, it should be used for more discrete operations, such as flipping through pages, scrolling a view, or jumping to focusable elements on screen. When an interface necessitates focusable elements, these should be visually apparent and arranged in a natural order. In most cases, "natural order" will mean scan-line order, or the way in which one reads a page of text, but this may adapt to suit the needs of the activity. For instance, some activities may opt to scan first by column, then by row; some may use a clockwise ordering some may even zig-zag across the screen. All of these arrangements are acceptable as long as their orderings logically follow from one to the next according to the visuals provided on screen.

Specific activities may in fact benefit from a more traditional cursor. Some games, for instance, may require one. To support these cases, the cursor may be explicitly shown. However, these instances should be carefully considered, since in many cases a cursor will provide a simple yet inefficient solution to a problem for which a better one exists.

The Controller Buttons

Generally speaking, the controller buttons can act either as standard event triggers, or as modifier buttons to the target of the D-pad controls. A common use for standard buttons is as select and cancel buttons. In such instances, the ◯ button should always represent confirmation, selection, or forward progress, while the ╳ button represents cancel, escape, or backward progress. Adhering to these guidelines will make navigation of Hand-held interfaces consistent.

When used as a modifier, the visuals on screen should clearly indicate which of the directions—up, down, left, right—perform actions, and those actions likewise should be clearly indicated. For instance, in the eBook, holding down ∆ displays an overlay listing the book's chapters, and the up/down arrows will have focus within this list while the modifier key remains pressed. The currently selected chapter appears in the center of the screen, and up and down arrows above and below the selected chapter clearly indicate how to scroll through the list. When activities implement a combination of both standard and modifier buttons, we encourage ╳ and ◯ for standard, and △ and ▢ for modifiers, since the former two are easier to hit with natural finger placement.

Built-in Hardware in Hand-held Mode

Both the camera and microphone reside within the display bezel, and as such remain available for activities to use within Hand-held mode. The important trade off to consider before using the camera or microphone is that of energy efficiency: while the laptop conserves energy in Hand-held mode, continued use of either of these two devices requires constant CPU usage, virtually eliminating the benefits. Therefore, do not simply integrate these hardware components unless they provide a fundamental service to your activity—but don't let this deter you from doing so where appropriate.

Screen Rotation

While in Hand-held mode, the laptops support screen rotation; by pressing a small button on the bezel of the display, the interface will rotate 90 degrees to provide a portrait layout of the currently active activity. Just as any activity can implement Hand-held mode, those which can benefit from a vertical aspect ratio may also implement this feature, and we encourage developers to take advantage of this functionality. The Read activity serves as a prime example of the usefulness of such a feature, since a vertical layout is well suited to displaying a single page from a book. This is just the type of activity one might want to do in Hand-held mode, and by providing two orientations a greater number of use cases can be covered.

In the current revisions of the laptops, its important to note that the buttons for interacting with Hand-held mode are slightly less accessible when the laptops are held vertically. For this reason, activities that require heavy or frequent use might not be best suited for this mode. However, OLPC is working hard on introducing touch-screen technology in the near future, which will nearly eliminate the dependency on the physical buttons, expanding the possibilities as every activity can take advantage of screen rotation. Therefore, even if screen rotation doesn't make sense for the first version of your activity, please construct your interface in such a way as to allow future adaptation to this new and potentially useful functionality.

Layout Guidelines

The Grid System

In keeping with the simple, flat visual style of the Sugar interface, we have designed all of the interface elements on a straightforward grid system. The system functions like a basic floorplan which allows interface elements to tile neatly within its boundaries. The grid consists of a 16x12 array of square tiles.

The diagram below shows the screen dissected into cells. Furthermore, the cells highlighted in blue indicate the areas suitable for activity toolbars. Note the exclusion of the corners, which are reserved for the hot corners which invoke the frame. In order to prevent accidental invocation, no buttons should be placed in these locations. Though all edges of the screen are suitable for placing toolbars, we recommend that the top and left edges of the screen serve as the primary location for them unless circumstances specifically suggest an alternative. Conforming to these guidelines will both make the variety of activities supported on the laptop feel more consistent, and also reserves the right and bottom edges for scroll bars, making navigation (when required) within the primary pane much simpler. Though the grab key provides the primary means for panning, preserving these edges for scroll bars even as visual indicators will increase usability.


Considering the screen at its maximum resolution of 1200x900 pixels in luminance mode, each square tile is 75x75 pixels in size. Each cell is comprised of a 5x5 array of 15 pixel subcells. These subcells provide layout guidelines at a finer level of detail. In general, the 3x3 subcell interior region is icon-safe.



Categories of Icons

The XO

The icons which represent People have special status on the laptops. Referred to generally as the XOs, they represent the children and their laptops on the mesh Neighborhood, and furthermore represent the OLPC project and its goals to place a laptop in the hands of every child. Each child will select a stroke and fill color for their XO, and their chosen colors will then apply to the icons of any Activities or Objects they create.

Activity Icons
Object Icons
Action Icons

Active vs. Inactive Icons

Many instances may arise in which some elements of the interface are inactive. Sugar specifies a consistent visual style to represent the concepts of absence and inactivity. Inactive elements are buttons that are not currently actionable, or controls that are temporarily disabled. Absent elements are object icons that represent people or things which aren't actually present at the moment; for instance, an incomplete download, or an invited friend who hasn't yet joined the activity.

Generally, interfaces represent such inactivity through grayed out imagery. Of course, since the laptop also operates in grayscale mode, such a color distinction must not be used under any circumstances. Instead, Sugar will take advantage of the vector graphics used for rendering objects and buttons by rendering inactive ones as a white outlined stroke, with no fill color.


Icon Design Guidelines

Icon Format

All icons designed for use in Sugar must be provided in SVG format. Since all icons exist as vectors, dynamic scaling and coloring of the icons occurs without any degradation. This allows variably sized representations of particular icons to exist depending on context in the interface. Additionally, this provides support for dynamic coloring of activity and object icons based upon a child's chosen XO colors.

Icon Sizes

Icons should be developed and saved at Standard (S) size, though their actual size and appearance in the interface may change dynamically. When developed at standard size, icons should fit loosely within the 3 x 3 icon-safe subcell of a standard 75px grid cell, as specified in the layout section.

Notice that when the interface scales your icons, strokes do not necessarily scale proportionally to the overall icon size. This ensures that the stroke weight remains visible enough at all sizes to convey its weight and color, but it may also limit the granularity with which you use strokes, which could begin to blend together at smaller sizes. The following chart relates the various icon sizes to their corresponding scale factors and stroke weights. We strongly suggest that you try rendering your icons at XS, S, and M sizes in order to tweak their appearance for optimal legibility.

Icon Size Comparison Chart
Icon SizeScaling FactorStroke Weight
XS 0.5 2.25px
S 1.0 3.5px
M 1.5 4.0px
L 2.0 4.5px
XL 2.75 6.0px
Strokes & Fills
API Reference
Module: sugar.shell.view.stylesheet

All icons render in two colors: stroke and fill. The actual stroke and fill colors that an icon renders in are determined by the children, since they correspond to the colors they have chosen for their XOs. As such, the colors in which you choose to save your icon are arbitrary. However, note that any fills that have the same color as your strokes will dynamically take on their color when rendered.

All strokes within an "S" activity icon must have a line weight of 3.5px. All icons should have a primary fill which represents its overall shape. In addition, any number of supplemental strokes and fills may be used; not all strokes within an icon must have fills, and not all fills must have strokes.

More detailed instructions for making icons can be found here.


Imbuing Color with Meaning

Sugar treats color differently from the typical UI: colors used in the interface represent the individuals who are interacting within the mesh, not the activities or objects they are using. Children personalize their laptops and their presence on the mesh by selecting a dual-tone color scheme. All of the activities, objects, and comments belonging to a child take on her own colors—even when they appear on the laptops of other children on the mesh—forming a visual identity that supplements her name and attributes.

This color treatment extends even within activities. For instance, in the Web activity a link-sharing feature encourages children to browse the web in groups, sharing interesting or useful pages with each other. Each URL object posted for the others to view appears in the colors of the child who posted the link. Similarly, chat bubbles on the Bulletin Board take on the children's colors. Likewise, any object, text, or other interface element within your activities that corresponds to a particular child should be rendered in this manner. When the display runs in grayscale mode, this colored visual identity is less apparent. However, significant differences in value, according to the Munsell System, ensure that the XOs retain a level of visual distinction even in the absence of color.

To maintain a degree of purity to this system, interface elements, buttons, and other icons that belong solely to the activity and not to any particular child should remain in grayscale to the extent possible. While removing color as a primary visual clue may seem counter-intuitive, it does encourage the icon's form to clearly indicate its function. Since the laptops will also run in grayscale mode, clearly distinct shapes become essential in the absence of chroma information, and so limiting activity icons to grayscale by default ensures compatibility in both modes. Additionally, keep in mind that the traditional method of "graying-out" inactive buttons and controls simply will not function on the laptops and must be avoided. Instead, please adhere to the guidelines for inactive icons.

See XO colors for the full list of defined and approved XO colors.

Contrast in the Munsell Colorspace

The basic color scheme for the laptop is constrained by the need to work in both color (backlight mode) and grayscale (reflective mode); thus we have chosen guidelines that ensure at least some achromatic contrast under all conditions. Further, sustained legibility of text is accomplished by a combination of colors whose achromatic contrast is large and whose chromatic energy is of low to moderate level. For this reason, we are striving for achromatic contrast of at least two Munsell value steps.

The default value for the Frame is N2.5; the default value for the background is N9. Therefore, to maintain sufficient contrast, the line values for icons that appear on both the Frame and the background should range between N5 and N7. The interior fill of those icons should maintain achromatic contrast with the line value, e.g., the fill color for an icon with a line value of N5 should be either ≤N3 or ≥N7.

Munsell Value Steps
Fill colorLine value 5
N10 delta 5 value steps
N9 delta 4 value steps
N8 delta 3 value steps
N7 delta 2 value steps
N6 delta 1 value steps
N5 delta 0 value steps
N4 delta 1 value steps
N3 delta 2 value steps
N2 delta 3 value steps
N1 delta 4 value steps
N0 delta 5 value steps
Text Against Default Laptop Colors
Font valueFrame (N2.5)Background (N9)
N10delta 7.5 value stepsdelta 1 value step
N9delta 6.5 value stepsdelta 0 value steps
N8delta 5.5 value stepsdelta 1 value step
N7delta 4.5 value stepsdelta 2 value steps
N6delta 3.5 value stepsdelta 3 value steps
N5delta 2.5 value stepsdelta 4 value steps
N4delta 1.5 value stepsdelta 5 value steps
N3delta 0.5 value stepsdelta 6 value steps
N2delta 0.5 value stepsdelta 7 value steps
N1delta 1.5 value stepsdelta 8 value steps
N0delta 2.5 value stepsdelta 9 value steps


DejaVu LGC Sans


The font used in Sugar menus

The OLPC display is 200DPI; therefore one point—1/72 inch—is just less than 3 pixels (2.78 pixels). We are settling on a default font size of 7pts. for the Sugar UI (using DejaVu LGC Sans). It is quite legible. This translates to a font size of approximately 19.45 pt in Adobe Illustrator, which bases its units on the traditional 72DPI display. For the purposes of preparing activity GUI mockups, you must always remember to make the conversion to the laptops' display resolution by multiplying by a constant factor of 0.36.

We will be looking at other faces, e.g., Arabic and Thai, and also looking into a large-type version of the interface for the younger children.


Due to the unique design of the OLPC display, particular techniques for text rendering will provide much better results than others. The dual mode display has a resolution of 1200x900 (200 dpi) in luminance mode, but only ~800x600 (133 dpi) in chrominance mode. Therefore, unless they are sufficiently large, fonts rendered with luminance and no chroma will appear sharper and more readable.

Additionally, the display has higher resolution in black pixels than in white pixels. This results from the fact that each pixel has a color part which contains either red, green, or blue information. In order to create white, red, green and blue parts must all work together; when off, each of the color parts is black on its own. Furthermore, a grey background limits the readability of the display in sunlight. Therefore, we recommend the use of black text on a white background for best readability of fine text, and color on white for larger print.



Every activity will have a "Toolbox" at the top edge of the screen. The Toolbox consists of a set of (at least one) toolbars, individually selectable via the tabs beneath them. Placement of the tabs beneath the toolbars themselves makes selection of tools and buttons within the toolbars easier according to Fitts' Law, since they will remain against the screen edges where they are "un-missable." Though this makes the tabs slightly more difficult to activate, we anticipate the frequency with which these toolbars require explicit switching to be minimal, specifically due to their contextual nature as described below.

Grouping by Context

Each toolbar will contain a logically grouped set of buttons and controls, as the name on its corresponding tab suggests. Each of these sets will represent a distinct editing or control context. For instance, the Write activity contains individual toolbars for Text, Images, and Tables. Each of these contains a set of controls relevant to the context they relate to. In order to streamline workflow, activities may initiate a toolbar-switch when the current editing context changes, automatically selecting the toolbar for the newly selected context. Clicking on an image within a report will automatically focus the Image Toolbar, revealing the associated controls; Clicking back within the body text will automatically re-focus the Text Toolbar. In this fashion, the controls visible on screen always remain relevant to the selection, virtually eliminating the need to select most toolbars explicitly, except perhaps to locate the "insert" button for an element for which no context currently exists.

Of course, a one to one relationship may not always exist. For instance, a selection may include both text and image, or perhaps for some reason focus isn't within any context at all. In these cases, it is up to the activity to decide the appropriate behavior. One suggested fallback is to switch automatically to the Edit Toolbar, since copy and paste, as well as most other editing commands, often apply across contexts.

Standard Toolbars

As mentioned above, every activity will have at least one toolbar within the toolbox: The Activity Toolbar. This toolbar will provide core activity functionality and will automatically be included in the Toolbox. Though sugar requires no other toolbars, it does provide a short list of potentially common ones along with suggested names and controls for consistency across Activities. These are suggestions, not rules, and as a developer you should feel free to ignore the suggestions when you find a compelling case to do so. The following table suggests a standard ordering for some common toolbars. Note that the arrows indicate the relative position of the tabs, where those with double arrows can be interspersed with custom elements as long as their relative order remains. In the examples which follow for controls within each toolbar, the arrows should be taken to indicate alignment within the toolbar, double arrows indicate control regions which expand to fill the remaining space.

< Activity < Edit < Text > < Image > [ Custom Toolbars ] Format > View >

Activity Toolbar

Always the first of the tabs, the Activity toolbar will remain consistent in every activity, providing a place to name and tag the instance, set preferences, share within the mesh, or stop (close) the activity, among others. This toolbar will always have focus when a new activity instance is created, encouraging the children to provide a name and any related tags. An API will allow developers to associate various palettes with some of the buttons which reside in the Activity toolbar, such as preferences.

Edit Toolbar

Though not automatically included within the Toolbox, we anticipate nearly every activity will have an Edit Toolbar, since nearly every activity should at least allow copying if not pasting as well. Likewise, we are strongly encouraging every activity to support complete Undo/Redo functionality, which should also reside within the Edit Toolbar. Finally, the edit toolbar will also provide a common interface for performing find operations on any text within the activity. Of course, activities should only include those functions which pertain to them, and additional editing tools may be added to the toolbar as necessary.

< Undo < Redo < Copy < Paste [ Custom Controls ] Find >

Undo/Redo: The undo/redo commands have extremely high importance on the laptops, since their presence encourages creative exploration without the fear of unrecoverable changes. They should function in a manner chosen by the activity, and although that manner should reflect our current expectations, the collaborative nature of most activities complicates the matter to some extent. A broad approach to managing collaborative undos requires a general notion of collisions between editing events. The AbiCollab tools which make the Write activity possible define this idea in detail in relation to text-based editing. The overall concept applies generally: For instance, a collision in a drawing activity could mean the collision of the bounding boxes of two drawn shapes. The secondary rollovers for the "undo" and "redo" buttons contain "undo all" (essentially revert) and "redo all" functionality. When supported, these controls should be the left-most item in the toolbar.

Copy/Paste: Sugar has a fully featured clipboard within the Frame, and as such we want to encourage children to copy and paste text, images, or anything else both within and between activities freely . The copy/paste, reuse, reorganize, modify, and share approach is core to the educational and creative experience that the laptops are designed for. We've simplified the paradigm, eliminating "cut" command from the top level editing commands. The distinction between "cut" an "copy" can seem unclear to those unfamiliar with computing, and so we've chosen to embed "cut" functionality in the secondary rollover beneath the "copy" button, and called it "copy and erase." When present, these controls should be left-aligned, immediately following the undo/redo commands.

Find/Replace Wherever

Text Toolbar
< Bold < Italic < Underline < Color Selector Font Size > Font > Alignment >
Image Toolbar
< Insert Image < Rotate Left < Rotate Right < Width < Height [Custom Image Controls]
View Toolbar
< Zoom Out < Zoom In < Show Grid < Show Rulers [ Custom View Controls ] Hide Toolbox >

Custom Toolbars

< Insert Object [Custom Controls] Add Bookmark >
Inserting Objects

Many custom toolbars will provide controls useful in editing contexts which don't always exist by default. The Table Toolbar within the Write activity is a good example of this: Until a table has been inserted into a document, there is no "table context" within which to edit. Of course, once there is one, the Table Toolbar will be automatically selected whenever the table is selected. Since the act of inserting the corresponding object creates the context that the toolbar associates with, this control should always appear first within the toolbar. The Icon guidelines provide further information on the visual style for insert buttons.


We hope to encourage discussion, iteration, and sharing on the laptops, and so we hope to encourage the idea of annotation across many different activities. When activities support textual annotations, highlighting, or other complex forms, they should have an Annotation Toolbar containing all of these features. Some activities, especially early on before a system-wide annotation system exists, may simply like to implement basic bookmarking. Though we hope to implement bookmarking as a subset of the annotation model, this particular feature is essential to some activities, and can be implemented in simpler ways in the meantime. When bookmarking exists as a single action within an activity, it should be placed to the far right of any custom toolbar which seems appropriate.

Hiding Toolbars

Although every activity requires at least the Activity Toolbar, developers may desire to hide the Toolbox in order to provide an all-encompasing experience, such as in an adventure game or a slideshow, or simply to make use of the full screen as an editing area. However, activity developers should consider these use cases carefully and take the following guidelines into account when taking advantage of this feature.

Soft Hiding

Most activities should use soft-hiding, which means that although the Toolbox will be hidden completely from view, it will still be accessible by moving the cursor to the top edge of the screen, provoking it to slide out and exposing the controls. This works great for casual or turn-based games, as well as any games which don't require the mouse. In these instances, the ability to access preferences, share or invite friends to the activity, start a new game, and of course exit the activity remains available at all times. This is also useful for presentation modes, such as slideshows, allowing the child to access the bar to perform operations such as next, back, and of course stop slideshow, thus showing the toolbar permanently again. When a soft-hidden toolbar slides into view, it slides in on top of the activity view beneath, eliminating the need to reflow the content; When hiding is turned off, it again embeds itself within the view, thus shifting the content downward.

When the sole purpose for hiding the Toolbox is to provide additional screen area for viewing or editing, a control within the View Toolbar should provide this option. Activities should not automatically invoke soft-hiding for this purpose (unless the aforementioned toggle is stored as a preference in the selected state). Though the laptops have a small viewable screen area, the choice to hide potentially frequently used controls should be left to the children.

When soft-hiding of the Toolbox is in effect, pressing the escape key should always reveal it again, exiting any mode related to its hiding (such as the slideshow). If no explicit toggle button or action (such as "start slideshow") exists to turn soft-hiding back on, activities may institute a timeout, after which it turns soft-hiding on again without input from the child. The activity must ensure that soft-hiding is never initiated without explicit interaction whenever the cursor remains within the Toolbox area.

Hard Hiding

Activities which make use of the entire screen, and moreover require active cursor movement across it, may wish to hide the Toolbox completely from view, eliminating the possibility that it could be invoked at the screen edge via the mouse. Hard-hiding allows activities to do this. The primary use case for this mode is action games which could be interrupted accidentally during gameplay. As such, these guidelines are written with respect to a fullscreen game, but their principles should carry over to other uses activity developers may find.

Hard-hiding removes all access to the Toolbox for an extended period of time, and therefore should only be used within activities which don't have their own toolbars. Also, since hard-hiding eliminates any means of invoking the Toolbox, the activity must always provide any of the basic functionality otherwise contained within the Activity Toolbar itself. Any game which supports networked play over the mesh should always provide a way for the initiator to name the instance.

To remain consistent with soft-hiding mode and with general expectations, the escape key should always provide a mechanism for exiting the game, even if another means exists. The escape key could immediately exit the game, returning to an intro screen, but it will more likely pause the game and reveal a menu containing an option to do so.


Rollover Animation Phases By Time
Animation PhaseTime Offset
Immediate Background Change 0.0 0.1
Primary Rollover Begins Expanding 0.1 0.2
Primary Rollover Displayed 0.3 0.4
Secondary Rollover Begins Expanding 0.7 0.3
Secondary Rollover Displayed 1.0 ----
Primary Rollover
Secondary Rollover

Rollovers as Menus

Rollovers as Contextual Menus

Rollovers as Dialogs


Sugar defines its own set of control widgets that will create the user interface on the laptops. Though most of the available controls will match developers' expectations, we've also developed some new controls and altered behaviors of others to better suit the user experience on the machines. With these new developments comes a new set of guidelines for their usage and placement which both maintains the broader set of goals and metaphors setup within Sugar and aids in the development of collaborative user interface environments.

As the control widget specification and guidelines compose a substantial portion of this document, internal page by page navigation is available by clicking on the header for any control set. In addition, the individual pages provide detailed specifications for the widgets and their various states. Finally, we're providing developers with an Adobe Illustrator file of the most up to date Sugar Control Specification in .ai (07.04.05) and .svg (07.05.18) in order to streamline early application layout and design mockups. Please understand these specifications and their implementations remain in early development, and their designs may change as the UI progresses. We'll provide links to APIs for the controls as they become available; Thanks for your patience.

Control Regions

In sugar, a predefined set of control regions provide the surfaces upon which controls may be placed. Limiting the background colors that the controls sit on allows for a consistent set of visual rules to define both the type and state of various controls while maintaining sufficient contrast even without the use of color. Shown to the right, the basic regions are the Canvas, Panel, Toolbar, and Palette.

Basic control regions

Canvas: The canvas is the general purpose "creation" space within any activity — the region for drawing, writing, or otherwise working within it. Since creation ranks high among our goals, we also hope that this is the dominant region of the screen in most activities. The canvas region is specifically for generating content and 'should not' have any controls placed upon it. As such, the canvas may be any color the activity or the user desires, though Sugar specifies both white and black as the basic defaults.

Toolbars: Activity toolbars have a unique dark gray color which distinguishes them from the other control regions. The Frame also uses this unique shade of gray to indicate its purpose as an omnipresent toolbar that a child may activate from within any view or activity. Each activity will have a toolbar at the top of the screen, though when necessary additional toolbars may also be specified.

Panels: When appropriate, an activity may devote a portion of the screen to additional controls which make more sense outside of the toolbar and within the global activity context. Controls placed in this region should always remain relevant at all times, regardless of any other state associated with the activity or editing context.

Palettes: Palettes serve as multipurpose control regions which appear in several contexts. In an interface without traditional windows and menus, palettes step in to provide a versatile solution in many aspects of the user interface as the second layer of control. For a full description of their uses, please see the section on Palettes and Rollovers.

Controls: The remainder of this section focuses largely on the specific controls and guidelines for their usage within your activity's UI. The designs of all controls presented here follow a basic set of rules regarding colors, line weights, and sizing for each of its various states. More detail about these broader design decisions is discussed in the custom controls section.


Text Buttons

Usage: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Behavior: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Guidelines: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Text with Icon Buttons




Icon Buttons




Toggle Buttons
Palette Buttons

Basic Selection Controls





Radio Buttons




Popup Menus




Popup Palettes




Combo Boxes




Advanced Selection Controls

Color Picker




Date Picker




Object Picker




Find/Replace Palette




Adjustment Controls





Basic Sliders




Sliders with Indication




Color Sliders





Determinate Progress Bars




Indeterminate Progress Bars




Activity Spinners




Level Indicators




Rating Indicators




Relevance Indicators




Text Controls

Text Fields




Tokenized Text Fields




Search Fields




Tokenized Search Fields




Password Fields




Multiline Text Fields




View Controls

Basic Sort Bars
Advanced Sort Bars
Sort Bar View Toggles
Tab Bars
Tabbed Sidebars
Disclosure Triangles

Grouping Controls


Custom Controls

When to Use Custom Controls

We have created a set of controls to suit most basic needs for Activity development. Using these controls wherever possible ensures that interfaces across Activities remain consistent and clear, and also maintains the visual style of the Sugar interface. Nonetheless, their basic functionality may prove limiting in some cases, and we certainly hope to inspire new and exciting uses of the various capabilities of the laptops, including their collaborative nature, and don't want to stifle additional ideation and design. For this reason, we are providing a general set of guidelines for the creation of custom controls that match the visual style of Sugar and maintain some basic standards for compatibility and usability within the Sugar interface.

Before implementing a custom control, be sure that the need truly exists. In some cases, you may find that a combination of simpler controls may suffice. In other cases, more complex functionality can be accommodated though use of a Palette. Additionally, be sure that the need is a functional one; Custom controls should have additional or different behavior that the current controls don't provide, and not simply define a different aesthetic for existing ones. Again, think carefully about the requirements for the control, and be sure that the functional need itself merits the work associated with creating the new control.

Control Color Palette

The Sugar interface defines a strict palette for the control widgets, along with guidelines for using these colors for various states and control types. Custom controls should adhere to the same set of colors and associated rules in order to ensure that their behavior mimics those of the core Sugar controls, and can be easily inferred by those who are familiar with them. Though their name and primary uses define these colors, any color within the palette provided below may be used for various parts of your control where it doesn't interfere with the basic rules associated with them.

NamePrimary UsesHex% Gray
BlackPalettes, Popups#000000100%
Toolbar GreyToolbars, Trays, Palette Groupings#40404075%
Button GreyDefault Button States#80808050%
Selection GreySelections, Panel Groupings#A6A6A635%
Panel GreyPanels, Desktop#C0C0C025%
Text Field GreyText entry background#E5E5E510%
WhitePressed states, multiline text areas#FFFFFF0%
Control Sizing

In accordance with the grid system, we have defined two standard sizes for controls: 75px and 45px. These sizes determine the bounding box for a given control, with 45px being the smallest recommended active (clickable) area for any control component. Note that the control itself may actually be smaller than this canvas, depending on the desired context. For instance, the icons for buttons fill up to 60% of the canvas area, with the actual icons having sizes of 55px and 27px.


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