One Laptop per Child/lang-zh-TW
2005 年 1 月，麻省理工學院媒體實驗室啟動了一個開發 100 美元筆記型電腦的研究專案，這可能徹底改變下一代的教育方式。為了達成目標，我們建立了一個獨立於麻省理工學院之外的非營利組織，名為 One Laptop per Child（每童一機），簡稱「OLPC」。
本 Wiki 網站的目錄在這裡。
「每童一機」是個概念，它的重點不在筆記型電腦、而是個關於教育的專案。這份理念能以很多種方式方式實現，不必非得由 OLPC 組織所開發的「百元電腦」來完成。OLPC 的想法很簡單：很多小朋友（尤其是低度開發國家鄉村裡的那群）很難接觸學校教育，有的甚至一顆翠綠的樹也摸不著，此時建立學校、訓練老師便成了改變現況唯一的（也常是漫長的）路。建學校、培養老師的工程不該停止，而 OLPC 同時提出另一種方式，試圖影響學童自己、讓學習本身更具吸引力。雖說，在有錢的小孩也不見得能辦到的情形下，要讓最貧困的小朋友能擁有可連線的電腦，看起來有點不切實際，但這不是空口說白話。筆記型電腦必能普及，而學童能因此受益、開創更好的明天。
小朋友需要學習如何學習，而這主要藉由熱情得來；學習的熱情經由便於得到、實做的成就感、溝通以及分享所構成。Writing a computer program, while seemingly esoteric, is in fact the closest a child can come to thinking about thinking. Likewise, debugging a program is the closest one can come to learning learning.
It goes without saying that Internet access and tools for expression (text, music, video, graphics) are the contemporary “toys” for learning. Every child of any means in the developed world has access to a computer at home and usually his or her own, with music, DVD, plus interactive and rich media to do anything from learning languages to play games.
Making these same resources available to the roughly one-billion other children, who do not have such access, has seemed ridiculously daunting, but is no longer. This is simply because the high costs of laptops has been artificial and perpetuated, not innate. It is fair to say that OLPC has broken this spell and companies like Intel are following it.
The intransigence of the problems of formal education in the face of conventional solutions, combined with pervasive poverty and the need for high-quality lifelong learning for inclusion in the global knowledge-based economy, warrants new thinking. The same digital technology that has enabled an unparalleled growth of knowledge, when combined with new methodologies for learning, can unleash the latent learning potential of the children of world.
Poor children lack opportunity, not capacity for learning. By providing laptops to every child without cost to the child, we bring the poor child the same opportunities for learning that wealthy families bring to their children.
Scale versus pilot
Consider immunization by analogy. Inoculating a few people here and there has no meaning. Scale is needed. Likewise with laptops. And furthermore, each child has to own his or her own machine and view it not as government property, but as a personal medium, cherished like a bicycle. The child is more confident, has greater self-esteem, and is more entrepreneurial than children without this tool.
Building computer labs in schools was an earlier approach—and perhaps the only one possible in the past. Such labs cater to a formal classroom setting. Today, additional approaches are possible. A laptop program can reach every child within the context of informal settings, which are the only ones available to many children. A nationwide roll out of personal machines can capture many more hours per day than school itself, not to mention night time, weekends and holidays. This will mobilize children. In addition it has significant spill-over effect on the entire family where a child has the OLPC.
Of the many values of scale, the foremost is the child as teacher. Peer-to-peer learning is one of the best ways to leverage children. The reach of such collaboration can go far beyond national borders and, in the longer term, lead to the bigger goals of world peace and understanding. To this end, OLPC is launching on three continents and in at least six countries.
Any parent whose child has a laptop at home has almost undoubtedly asked that child for help. What then follows is a change in one’s relationship with the child, with more elements of friendship and (on the child’s part) self-esteem. This by no means destroys the parent-child relationship. On the contrary, it enhances it. A bond to learning is formed between the child and parent at home.
The teacher-child relationship can and will likewise benefit. With sufficient self-confidence, teachers can learn from children without risk of unraveling the fabric of education—quite the contrary, improving it.
Children must not only own the laptop, but take it home. In so doing the whole family will benefit. Current pilot projects have shown unequivocally that parents become more engaged in their child’s learning and, very often, learn to use the laptops themselves. The role of the child in society changes; it is a more productive role. The child is not the object of change but the agent of change.
低電耗是重點。 Most children do not have electricity at home. Therefore, a laptop needs to run on both human power and long-life batteries. Human power, whether cranking or other gestures, must run a laptop at least 1-to-10: one minute of cranking provides ten minutes of use. In the case of batteries, a 10-hour life is need. Laptops cannot be plugged in at desks in classrooms. Even the richest school does not provide power to each desk.
Sunlight-readable displays are important for outdoor use as well as power conservation. This should be achieved as an option to traditional backlighting, not as a replacement to it. Both are needed. Furthermore, during night-time use, the laptop itself needs to be the light source for the surrounding area.
所謂的連線，則不能仰賴 DSL、WiFi 等東西，而是要讓電腦彼此共同、自動架構出網路來，不需要小朋友或老師的任何動作。每五百個小朋友，就應該能共用一個網際網路連線。也許在小朋友間的網路頻寬不高，但學校的伺服器必定有很高速的寬頻網路。
A further goal of the OLPC effort is to awaken the software and hardware giants to the needs of children in the developing world and thus to reconsider their strategies.
由Design Continuum設計的綠色機型, 在2005年突尼斯舉辦的世界資訊社會峰會上由聯合國秘書長安南和OLPC主席Nicholas Negroponte揭幕。
We have had significant quantities of prototype electronics built for people who need early access to the hardware for device driver, power management, wireless, distribution and UI work. The beginnings of notes on using the OLPC developer boards contain information that may be useful to those working on this early hardware. Please get involved in the Developers Program if you have the time, energy and ability to help.
Also, we are doing a OLPC Google Summer of Code.