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2005 年 1 月,麻省理工學院媒體實驗室啟動了一個開發 100 美元筆記型電腦的研究專案,這可能徹底改變下一代的教育方式。為了達成目標,我們建立了一個獨立於麻省理工學院之外的非營利組織,名為 One Laptop per Child(每童一機),簡稱「OLPC」。

本專案的官方網站是 laptop.org,在維基百科也有 OLPC 的詳細介紹

本 Wiki 網站的目錄在這裡

Contents

概觀

「每童一機」是個概念,它的重點不在筆記型電腦、而是個關於教育的專案。這份理念能以很多種方式方式實現,不必非得由 OLPC 組織所開發的「百元電腦」來完成。OLPC 的想法很簡單:很多小朋友(尤其是低度開發國家鄉村裡的那群)很難接觸學校教育,有的甚至一顆翠綠的樹也摸不著,此時建立學校、訓練老師便成了改變現況唯一的(也常是漫長的)路。建學校、培養老師的工程不該停止,而 OLPC 同時提出另一種方式,試圖影響學童自己、讓學習本身更具吸引力。雖說,在有錢的小孩也不見得能辦到的情形下,要讓最貧困的小朋友能擁有可連線的電腦,看起來有點不切實際,但這不是空口說白話。筆記型電腦必能普及,而學童能因此受益、開創更好的明天。

學習如何學習

「學習」是我們主要的目的。我們並不著重於使用電腦的教育,雖然這是小朋友們在使用筆記型電腦學習時會順帶取得的技能。小朋友們(尤其是年幼的小朋友)並不需要學習IT技術,也不需要流暢地使用Word、Excel、Powerpoint等辦公室軟體;然則,如果在成長的過程中擁有一台筆記型電腦,獲得這些技能將相當簡單。

在學習數學基本技能的同時學習討厭數學是很糟糕的。在學習知識的同時意識到這些智識對自己的意義,可以非常自然的讓小朋友瞭解,他們可以成就的遠比他們相信的更多。

小朋友需要學習如何學習,而這主要藉由熱情得來;學習的熱情經由便於得到、實做的成就感、溝通以及分享所構成。Writing a computer program, while seemingly esoteric, is in fact the closest a child can come to thinking about thinking. Likewise, debugging a program is the closest one can come to learning learning.

It goes without saying that Internet access and tools for expression (text, music, video, graphics) are the contemporary “toys” for learning. Every child of any means in the developed world has access to a computer at home and usually his or her own, with music, DVD, plus interactive and rich media to do anything from learning languages to play games.

Making these same resources available to the roughly one-billion other children, who do not have such access, has seemed ridiculously daunting, but is no longer. This is simply because the high costs of laptops has been artificial and perpetuated, not innate. It is fair to say that OLPC has broken this spell and companies like Intel are following it.

The intransigence of the problems of formal education in the face of conventional solutions, combined with pervasive poverty and the need for high-quality lifelong learning for inclusion in the global knowledge-based economy, warrants new thinking. The same digital technology that has enabled an unparalleled growth of knowledge, when combined with new methodologies for learning, can unleash the latent learning potential of the children of world.

Poor children lack opportunity, not capacity for learning. By providing laptops to every child without cost to the child, we bring the poor child the same opportunities for learning that wealthy families bring to their children.

Scale versus pilot

Consider immunization by analogy. Inoculating a few people here and there has no meaning. Scale is needed. Likewise with laptops. And furthermore, each child has to own his or her own machine and view it not as government property, but as a personal medium, cherished like a bicycle. The child is more confident, has greater self-esteem, and is more entrepreneurial than children without this tool.

Building computer labs in schools was an earlier approach—and perhaps the only one possible in the past. Such labs cater to a formal classroom setting. Today, additional approaches are possible. A laptop program can reach every child within the context of informal settings, which are the only ones available to many children. A nationwide roll out of personal machines can capture many more hours per day than school itself, not to mention night time, weekends and holidays. This will mobilize children. In addition it has significant spill-over effect on the entire family where a child has the OLPC.

Of the many values of scale, the foremost is the child as teacher. Peer-to-peer learning is one of the best ways to leverage children. The reach of such collaboration can go far beyond national borders and, in the longer term, lead to the bigger goals of world peace and understanding. To this end, OLPC is launching on three continents and in at least six countries.

學校以外

Any parent whose child has a laptop at home has almost undoubtedly asked that child for help. What then follows is a change in one’s relationship with the child, with more elements of friendship and (on the child’s part) self-esteem. This by no means destroys the parent-child relationship. On the contrary, it enhances it. A bond to learning is formed between the child and parent at home.

The teacher-child relationship can and will likewise benefit. With sufficient self-confidence, teachers can learn from children without risk of unraveling the fabric of education—quite the contrary, improving it.

Children must not only own the laptop, but take it home. In so doing the whole family will benefit. Current pilot projects have shown unequivocally that parents become more engaged in their child’s learning and, very often, learn to use the laptops themselves. The role of the child in society changes; it is a more productive role. The child is not the object of change but the agent of change.

特色

給學童用的筆記型電腦,其功能該比一般筆電還更多、而非更少。以他們的情況來說,還需特別注意另外三件事情:低電耗、螢幕可在陽光下閱讀以及自動連線。

低電耗是重點。 Most children do not have electricity at home. Therefore, a laptop needs to run on both human power and long-life batteries. Human power, whether cranking or other gestures, must run a laptop at least 1-to-10: one minute of cranking provides ten minutes of use. In the case of batteries, a 10-hour life is need. Laptops cannot be plugged in at desks in classrooms. Even the richest school does not provide power to each desk.

Sunlight-readable displays are important for outdoor use as well as power conservation. This should be achieved as an option to traditional backlighting, not as a replacement to it. Both are needed. Furthermore, during night-time use, the laptop itself needs to be the light source for the surrounding area.

所謂的連線,則不能仰賴 DSL、WiFi 等東西,而是要讓電腦彼此共同、自動架構出網路來,不需要小朋友或老師的任何動作。每五百個小朋友,就應該能共用一個網際網路連線。也許在小朋友間的網路頻寬不高,但學校的伺服器必定有很高速的寬頻網路。

A further goal of the OLPC effort is to awaken the software and hardware giants to the needs of children in the developing world and thus to reconsider their strategies.

圖片

此處有更多圖片。

硬體

Design Continuum設計的綠色機型, 在2005年突尼斯舉辦的世界資訊社會峰會上由聯合國秘書長安南和OLPC主席Nicholas Negroponte揭幕。

更新的機型由Fuseproject開發。

我們的多個開發小組正在調研不同的動力裝置選項,包括手搖曲柄、腳踏板和一組滑輪裝置。我們的目標是達到1:10的發電/使用比率,即發電一分鐘能夠使電腦工作十分鐘。我們已經得出結論,直接與筆記本電腦相連的手搖曲柄效率太低,不實用。單獨的人力發電效果較好。關於動力系統的詳情,我們會隨時更新。目前你可以在 這裏查看現有的人力發電設備。

第一代機型的硬體設置基本已經確定。它在許多方面都有開創性的設計,構成一種全新的系統,與世界上其他種類的“筆記本電腦”都不相同。

軟體

在OLPC項目中,我們致力於貫徹開源的原則。請查看我們的聲明:OLPC與開源軟體

為本機開發軟體並不複雜,但你需要注意一些軟體發展相關問題。我們的軟體發展合作夥伴是Red Hat

我們建立了一個OLPC軟體任務列表。請幫助我們補充完善這一列表。

關於即時聊天的問題討論列出了關於在100美元筆記本電腦上使用現時的即時聊天技術所面臨的種種技術挑戰。假如要在100美元筆記本電腦上使用即時聊天功能的話,必須先解決這些問題。

不幸的是,這一討論忽視了OLPC基本軟體套裝中早已包括即時聊天工具的事實。而且該討論具有極端臺式電腦中心的趨向,而忽略了如歐洲手機短信服務等其他技術模式。

電子圖書功能討論 是關於傳統以及非傳統的電子圖書功能及其與不同讀者關係的討論頁面。

Wiki電子圖書閱讀器 的討論議題是使用wiki作為電子圖書媒介的適用性,以及這一做法為何與100美元電腦所試圖解決的問題相一致。

教育

OLPC的理論基礎是由Seymour PapertAlan Kay開創的建構主義學習理論,以及Nicholas Negroponte的著作'Being Digital'中表述的原理。關於我們的做法的更多背景知識可參見David Cavallo的文章推動學習環境基礎變革的模型

啟動計畫

本專案中的筆記本電腦將由政府購買,並通過學校統一分發給“每個孩子一台筆記本電腦”。現期我們正在洽談的國家是中國、巴西、阿根廷、埃及、尼日利亞和泰國。此外,部分電腦將分發給其他國家用於軟體發展。本機的商業版本也將在探討之中。

這裏是有OLPC工作小組的國家列表。

這裏是國家工作會議的照片。

參與我們

本wiki中有關於參與OLPC的專門頁面, OLPC建議集錦頁面, 一個IRC頻道(irc.freenode.net, #OLPC), 用於OLPC一般性討論的郵件列表, 以及一個OLPC工作機會頁面.

這裏你可以 下載用於OLPC硬體的Fedora軟體,以及加入OLPC相關Fedora郵件列表

We have had significant quantities of prototype electronics built for people who need early access to the hardware for device driver, power management, wireless, distribution and UI work. The beginnings of notes on using the OLPC developer boards contain information that may be useful to those working on this early hardware. Please get involved in the Developers Program if you have the time, energy and ability to help.

Also, we are doing a OLPC Google Summer of Code.

翻譯

請幫助我們把OLPC網站翻譯成你的母語。請使用POTXLIFF範本。我們已有阿拉伯語, 孟加拉語, 丹麥語, 德語, 希臘語, 芬蘭語, 法語, 豪撒語, 印度語, 伊博語, 義大利語, 日語, 老撾語, 尼泊爾語, 荷蘭語, 波蘭語, 葡萄牙語, 俄語, 西班牙語, 瑞典語, 泰盧固語, 土耳其語, 泰語, 越南語, 約魯巴語, 繁體中文, 和簡體中文範本.

常見問題解答

英文版官方常見問題解答在本專案官方網站上。更多問題與解答見這裏。你可在這裏提出問題。此外我們還有一系列的OLPC傳言

一個獨立的OLPC歷史頁面用於整理記錄本專案相關資訊。

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