SPI FLASH Recovery/XO-1.5 Partial

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Contents

Problem Description

An XO-1.5 was unable to boot:

  • the display backlight was on, the display was white, with no XO icon,
  • there was no startup sound,
  • the power button was able to turn the laptop off.

Analysis

  • the serial console was attached and showed:
+
Forthmacs 
Type 'i' to interrupt stand-init sequence
No DSDT 
Unimplemented package interface procedure
ok █
  • the system responded to commands:
ok banner
OLPC D7, 1 GiB memory installed, No internal storage, S/N SHC016013D1
OpenFirmware  Q3B13   EC Firmware Ver:2.2.10   2014-01-09 04:04:33 UTC
ok █
  • the No DSDT means the dropin dsdt could not be located,
  • the dropin table was dumped:
ok .dropins
Name             Data Offset     Length  Expansion   Checksum
reset                     20       218b          0      d3c3b
resume                  21cc        711          0      2fd9e
paging                  2900        128          0       65c7
inflate                 2a48       1cb9          0      df243
firmware                4724      54d70      e2310    2c9c328
class0c0300            594b4       2a01       4ed8     1505f4
class0c0320            5bed8       3c5b       6fb4     1e0343
usb,class9             5fb54        70c          0      2683e
ok █
  • the abbreviated table suggests that the corruption begins at around 0x60000, which corresponds to 0x70000 in the SPI Flash,
  • the Flash block size is 0x10000,
  • the SPI Flash was dumped as verification,
no-page
: .flash
   use-spi-flash
   flash-write-enable
   /flash 0 do
      flash-buf i + /chunk i flash-read
      i .x (cr
      /chunk
   +loop
   cr
   flash-buf /flash dump
   cr
   flash-write-disable
;
.flash
  • analysis of the dump against production .rom files showed that Q3C07 was present for 0x00000 to 0x6ffff, with Q3B03 for 0x70000 to 0xfffff.

Root Cause

  • power to the laptop was removed by the user during the firmware upgrade to 12.1.0, bricking the laptop.

Tooling

  • the affected XO-1.5, the target,
  • a serial adapter,
  • a Linux system to be used as a serial terminal, the host,
  • the screen and pv packages,
  • an image file containing the latter part of the new firmware version:
$ dd if=q3c07.rom bs=1 skip=458752 of=q3c07-0x70000-0xfffff.rom
$ md5sum q3c07-0x70000-0xfffff.rom
da1a1ef3339c016953b4cdb8032050aa  q3c07-0x70000-0xfffff.rom
  • a repair program for loading to the firmware:
h# 70000 value borken  \ point from which the SPI Flash is damaged
flash-buf borken + value borken-buf
/flash borken - value /borken

: .md5  ( md5$ -- )  \ display an md5sum result
   push-hex  bounds  ?do
      i c@  <# u# u# u#> type
   loop  pop-base
;
: take  ( -- )  \ load buffer from host over serial
   use-spi-flash
   flash-write-enable
   ." ready for transmission" cr
   borken-buf /borken bounds do ukey i c! loop d# 1000 ms
   ." received md5 " borken-buf /borken $md5digest1 .md5 cr
;
: debork  \ write only the section to be repaired
   \ from write-firmware
   flash-buf borken + mfg-data-offset borken write-flash-range
   flash-buf mfg-data-end-offset + /flash mfg-data-end-offset write-flash-range

   \ from verify-firmware
   flash-buf borken + mfg-data-offset borken verify-flash-range
   flash-buf mfg-data-end-offset + /flash mfg-data-end-offset verify-flash-range
;
: commit  flash-write-disable  ;  \ reboots
  • a pv command line prepared for sending the image file:
pv --force -i 0.25 -B 128 q3c07-0x70000-0xfffff.rom > /dev/ttyUSB0

Reproducer

  • flash Q3C07 normally,
  • use the tooling to flash the latter part of Q3B03.

Solution

  • power on the target, and press 'i' to interact, and observe the response, which must be:
+
Forthmacs 
Type 'i' to interrupt stand-init sequence
Interacting
ok █
  • download the repair program into the target, type dl on the host terminal and press enter:
ok dl
Ready for download.  Send file then type ^D
█
  • copy and paste the repair program into the host terminal, then type Control-D, the target must respond only with the prompt:
ok █
  • download the image file into the target; type take on the host terminal and press enter, the target must respond thus:
ok take
SPI FLASH is type 13 - Spansion, Winbond, or ST
ready for transmission
█
  • use the pv command line to send the image file, and observe the response, which must be:
received md5 da1a1ef3339c016953b4cdb8032050aa
ok █
  • check that the md5sum matches before proceeding,
  • write the image to the SPI Flash device, type debork and press enter, the target must respond thus:
ok debork
Writing
d0000 
Writing
f0000 
Verifying
d0000 
Verifying
f0000 
ok █
  • check that there were no errors,
  • commit the change and reboot, type commit and press enter, the target must respond thus:
ok commit
Restarting...
+
Forthmacs 
Type 'i' to interrupt stand-init sequence
USB2 devices:
USB1 devices:
OLPC D7, 1 GiB memory installed, 4 GB internal storage, S/N SHC016013D1
OpenFirmware  Q3C07   EC Firmware Ver:2.2.10   2014-01-09 04:35:15 UTC

Type the Esc key to interrupt automatic startup
2 █
  • check that the laptop starts up correctly.
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