Revision as of 05:53, 17 December 2008 by Cjl
discuss "foreign" language "instruction" theories and actual practices.. find "facts" useful to create strong tools for language learners using the OLPC 2B1
list theories possibly useful to language learners using the OLPC 2B1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/language_methods http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicative_language_teaching http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/language_education
opinion: discussion on language learning using the OLPC 2B1 might start with the research of Stephen Krashen.. LANGUAGE ACQUISTION The distinction between acquiring and learning was made by Stephen Krashen (1982). According to Krashen, the acquisition of a language is a natural process; whereas learning a language is a conscious one.. second language acquisition
Experiments demonstrated that learners do not learn well when they are affected by negative feelings such as boredom, anxiety or low self-esteem. According to this hypothesis these negative emotions activate a filter that prevents efficient processing of the learning input. The hypothesis is unproven, yet also unchallenged.. affective filter
The COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT hypothesis argues that acquisition takes place when the student is exposed to meaningful and a variety of input.. comprehensible input
Krashen also proposed the NATURAL ORDER hypothesis whereby the acquisition of language is in developmental stages.. basic sounds, vocabulary, negating phrases, forming questions, using relative clauses, and so on.. similar to the learning stages that babies go through when acquiring the first language: babbling (bababa), vocabulary (milk then later milk drink), negation (no play), question forming (where she go), etc.. natural order
language learners must build on their knowledge through processing language at a level slightly beyond their ability: 'current competence + 1' (i +1) ] This is also known as INSTRUCTIONAL SCAFFOLDING..
methods in sync w/ krashen
krashen does approve of some methods which are used with success, even in testing-obsessed classrooms:
"total physical response" is an interactive, kinesthetic approach uncovered by accident and developed in 1960's by James Asher. Students respond to commands that require physical movement. The method relies on the assumption that when learning a second or additional language, that language is internalised through a process of codebreaking similar to first language development and that the process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production. "TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth - including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language." --James J. Asher, Ph.D. The child responds physically to the speech of their parent. The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech of the parent. For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak. It is during this period that the internalisation and codebreaking occurs. After this stage the child is able to reproduce the language spontaneously. With TPR the language teacher tries to mimic this process in class. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TPR http://tpr-world.com/ABC.html
total physical response storytelling or teaching proficiency in reading and storytelling developed by blaine ray and others 1. Introduction of target grammatical structures through personalized questions and answers directed to individual students, 2. Telling of the main story using a circling technique of asking questions (resulting in multiple repetitions of the target structures), and 3. Reading stories where the target structures are used in various contexts. http://blaineraytprs.com/explanationpage.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TPRS opinion: "tprs" moniker may damage an effective method.. a more apt name may be "storyasking"..
Much of Krashen's model has been criticized, for example, the vagueness of the model, or the lack of empirical studies. However, many students and teachers feel the difference between learning and acquisition.. criticism
http://sk.com.br/sk-krash.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Krashen http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_language
question: do you know many people who study "foreign" language for years without really learning much? experience: here in mexico, many people i meet hate english because the classes are dull and they don't end up learning much, or worse: opinion: many "language methods" end up teaching people that they are "no good" at "foreign" language.. new solutions that suck less might be helpful.. Duke 12:59, 24 October 2006 (EDT)