Yiddish (Yid. ייִדיש, yidish, = n. & adj. "Jewish")
Yiddish has been variously considered a German dialect and an independent language.
A widely-cited statement of the situation in the 1930s was published by Max Weinreich, quoting a remark by an auditor of one of his lectures:
אַ שפּראַך איז אַ דיאַלעקט מיט אַן אַרמיי און פֿלאָט
(a shprakh iz a dialekt mit an armey un flot).
"A language is a dialect with an army and navy"