OLE Nepal:Procedure to build NEXS from OLPC XS


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The OLPC server software releases are designated as OLPC_XS-0.x. OLE Nepal needs to build a custom configuration of the XS that meets the needs of our schools. These releases will are designated as NEXS-m.n (short style) or NEXS_0.x-m.n to show the OLPC XS release on which it is based.

The current OLPC release is OLPC_XS-0.4 to be followed very shortly by OLPC_XS-0.5. The former is based on Fedora 7 and the latter on Fedora 9.

We currently plan a release NEXS_0.4-1.4. A release which ends in an even number is considered stable and available for installation. This document describes the procedure for building NEXS_0.4-1.3 from OLPC_XS-0.4. The release ends in an odd number to show that it is still under test. When testing is completed, it will be re-designated as NEXS_0.4-1.4.

Our next release will be NEXS_0.5-1.6. The primary difference in these two releases will be the move to Fedora 9. It is also expected that the OLPC XS-0.5 will incorporate MySQL and Moodle so that we will no longer need to add these ourselves.


Copy OLPC_XS-0.4.iso and other packages to the local fileserver

We need the base iso image to be on our local fileserver (fileserver/ole_storage/software/schoolserver) so that in the case of problems we can go back to the source. In addition this folder contains the other packages which were needed to build NEXS: dansguardian, mysql, and moodle.


Download XS iso and md5 files to the OLENepal fileserver/ole_storage/Software/schoolserver/XS/XS-0.x folder:

 wget http://xs-dev.laptop.org/xs/OLPC_XS_0_4.iso 
 md5sum OLPC_XS_0_4.iso > OLPC_XS_0_4.iso.md5
 mkdir smb://fileserver/ole_storage/Software/schoolserver/XS/XS_0_4
 cp OLPC_XS_0.4.iso smb://fileserver/ole_storage/Software/schoolserver/XS/XS_0_4

Note: currently the md5 checksum for the iso file is not given at http://xs-dev.laptop.org/xs/. It would be better to verify the download of the iso file against an md5 checksum created by the developer. However, this test will confirm that a copy from the fileserver is correct.


Download Dansguardian to the fileserver.

 wget http://mirrors.evis.net.ph/downloads/2/Stable/dansguardian-2.10.tar.gz


 wget http://mysql.thaiweb.net/Downloads/MySQL-5.0/MySQL-server-community-5.0.67-0.rhel5.i386.rpm
 MD5: 99dcde3e08536a35d42cb939195def9f
 wget http://mysql.thaiweb.net/Downloads/MySQL-5.0/MySQL-shared-community-5.0.67-0.rhel5.i386.rpm
 MD5: bc1f85b62c6bd9ec2b0dc8658d89c16e
 wget http://mysql.thaiweb.net/Downloads/MySQL-5.0/MySQL-client-community-5.0.67-0.rhel5.i386.rpm
 MD5: 7dfbb1e9e3c8ee7bd5abda8d620c2507


 wget http://download.moodle.org/stable19/moodle-weekly-19.tgz

Set up development environment

The Fedora system used to build NEXS must have some development tools installed:

 yum -y install squashfs-tools livecd-tools
 yum -y install gcc automake bison autoconf gcc-c++ binutils cscope zlib-devel pcre-devel patchutils

Procedure to make revised iso image

This procedure allows changes to the kickstart file and to the packages included in the NEXS iso image.

 mkdir temp
 cd temp
 mkdir XSiso
 mount -o loop OLPC_XS_0.4.iso XSiso
 unsquashfs XSiso/LiveOS/squashfs.img
 mkdir livecd-root
 mount -o loop,rw squashfs-root/LiveOS/os.img livecd-root

now make changes as needed

 umount livecd-root
 mv squashfs.img squashfs.img.orig
 mksquashfs squashfs-root squashfs.img
 mkdir NEXSiso
 rsync -av --exclude=śquashfs.img' XSiso NEXSiso
 mv squashfs.img NEXSiso/LiveOS
 umount XSiso

Additions/Changes to packages in XS required to make NEXS

This section describes the procedure to create a customized version of the OLCP XS (NEXS) server from the original OLPC_XS-0.4 iso image.The resulting NEXS iso image contains additional software that we cannot not included in the OLPC XS distribution.

Download the iso image and other necessary files from the SAMBA share hosted in our internal LAN:

 -> Go to OLE_storage and download the nexs-files directory to your local hard drive

Check for the necessary files:

 root@localhost~# cd nexs-files
 root@localhostnexs-files# ls
     alldb.sql  apache.tar.bz2  blacklist.tar.bz2  httpd.conf  install.sh  OLPC_XS_0_4.iso  rc.local  squashfs-process  XSinstall
 root@localhostnexs-files# pwd

Install related tools and then mount the iso image with the help of the loop back device:

 root@localhostwork# yum -y install squashfs-tools livecd-tools
 root@localhostnexs-files#  mkdir /mnt/t
 root@localhostnexs-files# mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 OLPC_XS_0_4.iso  /mnt/t
 root@localhostnexs-files# mount 
       /dev/sda2 on / type ext3 (rw) 
       proc on /proc type proc (rw) 
       sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
       devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
       /dev/sda1 on /boot type ext3 (rw)
       tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
       none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
       sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
       /root/nexs-files/OLPC_XS_0_4.iso on /mnt/t type iso9660 (ro,loop=/dev/loop0)

Get inside the /mnt/t directory to see the contents of the iso

 root@localhostnexs-files# cd /mnt/t
 root@localhostt# ls
     isolinux  squashfs.img  sysroot

copy the contents of all the /mnt/t i.e the mounted iso images to a new location preserving the file permissions and unsquash the squashfs filesystem:

 root@localhostt# mkdir /root/work
 root@localhostt# cp -varf /mnt/t/* /root/work/
 `/mnt/t/isolinux' -> `/root/work/isolinux'
 `/mnt/t/isolinux/boot.cat' -> `/root/work/isolinux/boot.cat'
 `/mnt/t/isolinux/initrd.img' -> `/root/work/isolinux/initrd.img'
 `/mnt/t/isolinux/isolinux.bin' -> `/root/work/isolinux/isolinux.bin'
 `/mnt/t/isolinux/isolinux.cfg' -> `/root/work/isolinux/isolinux.cfg'
 `/mnt/t/isolinux/splash.jpg' -> `/root/work/isolinux/splash.jpg'
 `/mnt/t/isolinux/vesamenu.c32' -> `/root/work/isolinux/vesamenu.c32'
 `/mnt/t/isolinux/vmlinuz' -> `/root/work/isolinux/vmlinuz'
 `/mnt/t/squashfs.img' -> `/root/work/squashfs.img'
 `/mnt/t/sysroot' -> `/root/work/sysroot'
 root@localhostt# cd /root/work/
 root@localhostwork# ls
     isolinux  squashfs.img  sysroot
 root@localhostwork# unsquashfs squashfs.img 
     created 1 files
     created 2 directories
     created 0 symlinks
     created 0 devices
     created 0 fifos
 root@localhostwork# ls
     isolinux  squashfs.img  squashfs-root  sysroot
     ****Make sure that you have a new directory called squashfs-root

mount the os.img file in a new directory of your choice:

 root@localhostsquashfs-root# mkdir /mnt/os
 root@localhostsquashfs-root# mount -o loop,rw os.img /mnt/os
 root@localhostsquashfs-root# cd /mnt/os

copy all the necessary files to /mnt/os/root directory

 root@localhostos# cd /mnt/os/root
 root@localhostroot# ls
     anaconda-ks.cfg  olpc-install
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/
     alldb.sql          blacklist.tar.bz2  install.sh         rc.local           XSinstall          
     apache.tar.bz2     httpd.conf         OLPC_XS_0_4.iso    squashfs-process   
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/alldb.sql .
 `/root/nexs-files/alldb.sql' -> `./alldb.sql'
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/blacklist.tar.bz2 .
 `/root/nexs-files/blacklist.tar.bz2' -> `./blacklist.tar.bz2'
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/install.sh  .
 `/root/nexs-files/install.sh' -> `./install.sh'
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/rc.local  .
 `/root/nexs-files/rc.local' -> `./rc.local'
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/XSinstall  .
 `/root/nexs-files/XSinstall' -> `./XSinstall'
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/apache.tar.bz2  .
 `/root/nexs-files/apache.tar.bz2' -> `./apache.tar.bz2'
 root@localhostroot# cp -varf /root/nexs-files/httpd.conf  .
 `/root/nexs-files/httpd.conf' -> `./httpd.conf'
 root@localhostroot# ls
     alldb.sql  anaconda-ks.cfg  apache.tar.bz2  blacklist.tar.bz2  httpd.conf  install.sh  olpc-install  rc.local  XSinstall
 root@localhostroot# cd 

Chroot inside the /mnt/os directory

 root@localhost~# chroot  /mnt/os /bin//bash 
 [root@localhost /]# mount /proc
 [root@localhost /]# mount /sys
 **Make sure that /proc and /sys are mounted to do so issue the following command :
 [root@localhost /]# mount
 /dev/mapper/livecd-rw on / type ext3 (rw,noatime)
 proc on /proc type proc (rw)
 sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
 [root@localhost /]# ls
     bin  boot  dev  etc  home  lib  library  lost+found  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  sbin  selinux  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var
 [root@localhost /]# cd /root/
 [root@localhost ~]# ls
     alldb.sql  anaconda-ks.cfg  apache.tar.bz2  blacklist.tar.bz2  httpd.conf  install.sh  olpc-install  rc.local  XSinstall

Make sure that you have changed the /etc/resolv.conf and that we can ping the internet:

 [root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/resolv.conf
 [root@localhost ~]# echo nameserver  > /etc/resolv.conf
 [root@localhost ~]# ping www.google.com
     PING www.l.google.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
     64 bytes from eo-in-f99.google.com ( icmp_seq=1 ttl=232 time=286 ms
     64 bytes from eo-in-f99.google.com ( icmp_seq=2 ttl=232 time=285 ms
     --- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
     2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 2345ms
     rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 285.766/285.918/286.071/0.556 ms

Customize your distribution by adding softwares ; here we will be adding only few related softwares:

Install some rpms:

 [root@localhost ~]# yum -y install gcc automake bison autoconf gcc-c++ binutils 
     cscope mysql-server php-mysql zlib-devel pcre-devel  patchutils 

Configure apache and moodle:

 [root@localhost ~]# cat httpd.conf  > /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf 

Unzip the moodle and moodle data:

 [root@localhost ~]# tar jxpf apache.tar.bz2 
 [root@localhost ~]# ls

alldb.sql anaconda-ks.cfg apache.tar.bz2 blacklist.tar.bz2 httpd.conf install.sh olpc-install rc.local var XSinstall

Copy the moodle and moodledata to a new place:

 [root@localhost ~]# \cp -varf var/www/* /var/www/
 [root@localhost ~]# cd /var/www/
 [root@localhost www]# ls
     cgi-bin  ds-backup  error  html  icons  manual  moodle  moodledata
 [root@localhost www]# cd moodle
 [root@localhost moodle]# ls
     admin   blocks    config-dist.php  enrol     files   group      install      lang   manifest.txt  mod    pix         rss     tag    user
     auth    blog      config.php       error     filter  help.php   install.php  lib    message       my     question    search  tags   userpix
     backup  calendar  course          file.php  grade   index.php  iplookup     login  mnet          notes  README.txt  sso     theme version.php

Modify Mysql databases

 [root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start
 [root@localhost ~]# mysql -u root -p < /root/alldb.sql 
 [root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld stop

Change moodle password

 [root@localhost /]# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-table &
     mysql> use mysql;
     mysql> update user set password=PASSWORD("mysqlroot") where user="root";
     mysql> update user set password=PASSWORD("moodle") where user="moodle";
     mysql> quit;
 [root@localhost /]# killall mysqld
 [root@localhost /]# killall mysqld

Make sure that permission on the /var/www/ directory is correct

 [root@localhost /]# chown apache: -R /var/www/

Installing dansguardian

 [root@localhost /]# cd /usr/local/src
 [root@localhost src]# wget http://dansguardian.org/downloads/2/Stable/dansguardian-2.10.tar.gz
 [root@localhost src]# tar zxvp dansguardian-2.10.tar.gz
 [root@localhost src]# cd dansguardian-2.10
 [root@localhost dansguardian-2.10]# ./configure --sysconfdir=/etc
 [root@localhost dansguardian-2.10]# make && make install
 [root@localhost dansguardian-2.10]# touch /usr/local/var/log/dansguardian/access.log
 [root@localhost dansguardian-2.10]# chown nobody: -R /usr/local/var/log/dansguardian//access.log

Open up the dansguardian config file:

 [root@localhost dansguardian-2.10]# vim /etc/dansguardian/dansguardian.conf 

Change the filterport to 8081

 filterport = 12121

Change the weightedphrasemode to 1

 weightedphrasemode = 1

Save and quit the Vi editor

 [root@localhost lists]# cd /etc/dansguardian/lists
 [root@localhost lists]# cp -varf /root/blacklist.tar.bz2 .
 [root@localhost blacklists]# tar jxpf blacklist.tar.bz2 
 [root@localhost dansguardian]# vim /etc/dansguardian/lists/bannedsitelist 

===Uncomment all lines EXCEPT the following (leave them as is and don't remove the pound sign in front of these lines)


Save and quit the Vi editor

 [root@localhost dansguardian]# vim /etc/dansguardian/lists/urlregexplist 

Press shift and ; and type set nu and then press enter to show line nubers in the Vi

Uncomment the lines related to google safe search

 13 "(^http://[0-9a-z]+\.google\.[a-z]+[-/%.0-9a-z]*/images\?)(.*)(&?)(safe=[^&]*)"->"\1\2\3"
 15 "(^http://[0-9a-z]+\.google\.[a-z]+[-/%.0-9a-z]*/images\?)"->"\1safe=vss&"
 43 "^http://[.0-9a-z]+\.yahoo\.[a-z]+[-/%.0-9a-z]*/search)(.*)(&?)(vm=[^&]*)"->"\1\2\3"
 44 "(^http://[.0-9a-z]+\.yahoo\.[a-z]+[-/%.0-9a-z]*/search+.*\?)"->"\1vm=r&"

Save and quit the Vi editor

Making squid run in the mounted enviroment for testing:

 [root@localhost dansguardian]# cd /etc/squid/
 [root@localhost squid]# cp squid-xs.conf.in squid-xs.conf
 [root@localhost squid]# vim squid-xs.conf

Comment out the line 44.Now it should look like this

      #append_domain .@@BASEDNSNAME@@

Save and quit the editor

Make the squid cache director and set correct permissions

 [root@localhost squid]# mkdir /library/cache
 [root@localhost squid]# chown squid:squid /library/cache
 [root@localhost squid]# squid -z -f /etc/squid/squid-xs.conf
 [root@localhost squid]# squid -z -f /etc/squid/squid-xs.conf
 [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init.d/squid restart
     Stopping squid:                                            [FAILED]
     Starting squid:                                            [  OK  ]
 [root@localhost squid]# 

Run dansguardian:

 [root@localhost squid]# dansguardian -Q

===If everything is fine then we can proceed:

 [root@localhost squid]# /etc/init.d/squid stop
 [root@localhost squid]# killall danguardian

Open up /etc/rc.local file and make changes to it so that it looks like the following:

   # This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
   # You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don't
   # want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.
   touch /var/lock/subsys/local
   sh /root/olpc-install
   sh /root/install.sh

Save and quit the editor

Configuring ejabberd

In the SERVED HOSTNAMES section make sure that you have a line that reads:

   {hosts, ["localhost","schoolserver"]}.

If you have only IPV4 available then make sure that you delete the line containing the keyword inet6 for different sections. For example if you have section like this which enables old SSL based connection to the ejabberd:

   {5223, ejabberd_c2s, [
                       {access, c2s},
                       {shaper, c2s_shaper},
                       tls, {certfile, "/etc/ejabberd/ejabberd.pem"},
                       {max_stanza_size, 524288}

You have to delete the line containing inet6 so that it reads:

   {5223, ejabberd_c2s, [
                       {access, c2s},
                       {shaper, c2s_shaper},
                       tls, {certfile, "/etc/ejabberd/ejabberd.pem"},
                       {max_stanza_size, 524288}

In ACCESS CONTROL LISTS section add a new admin user:

   {acl, admin, {user, "admin","schoolserver" }}.
   {acl, admin, {user, "admin","localhost" }}.

Restart ejabberd

 [root@localhost]# service ejabberd restart

Register the admin user:

 [root@localhost ~]# ejabberdctl ejabberd@schoolserver register admin schoolserver admin

Now you can manage the ejabberd daemon via web interface. Open the following URL in the browser:

 http://ip.of.your.server:5280/admin or use elinks text based browser

Enter User Name admin and password as admin (we configured this in the section 12.4)

Make sure that the XOs can now login to the ejabberd and can start the chat ; whenever a XO registers itself with the XS server  ; a sqlite database file identity.db is updated which is located in the /home/idmgr. You can list the contents of this Database by issuing the following command:

 [root@localhost idmgr]# /home/idmgr/list_registration 
     Listing students from  /home/idmgr/identity.db
         tony    CSN7480103A
         Arjun   SHF8060097D

Make changes to /root/anaconda-ks.cfg so that it looks like the following:

  [root@localhost ~]# cat anaconda-ks.cfg 
  # Kickstart file for installing a school server
  #  For now, due to anaconda bug #243374
  lang en_US.UTF-8
  keyboard us
  # xconfig --startxonboot
  network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp --hostname schoolserver
  rootpw --iscrypted $1$Bf0Ag93M$weSucLBipI6jTjtolgZE61
  firewall --enabled
  authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5
  # selinux --permissive
  selinux --disabled
  # timezone --utc America/New_York
  bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet"
  # The following is the partition information you requested
  # Note that any partitions you deleted are not expressed
  # here so unless you clear all partitions first, this is
  # not guaranteed to work
  clearpart --linux --drives=sda
  # Small Disk Support:       (xs #7241)
  # If space >~10GiB then the sizes are
  #       /boot       100 MiB
  #       /             8 GiB
  #       swap          2 GiB
  #       /library    fills all remaining capicity
  # If space is limited, partition sizes are reduced.
  # Smallest supported capacity is ~5GiB when no livecd-creator --uncompressed-size argument is
  # specified (defaults to 4096).
  # Using livecd-creator --uncompressed-size=2048 allows installation on ~3GiB disks (not tested yet).
  part /boot --fstype ext3 --size=100 --ondisk=sda
  part / --fstype ext3 --size=2048 --maxsize=8192 --grow --ondisk=sda
  # size of pv.6 must be at least enough to fit /library size and swap size
  part pv.6 --size=1025 --grow --ondisk=sda
  volgroup VolGroup00 --pesize=32768 pv.6
  # Kickstart raises an error if logvol --size=0
  logvol /library --fstype ext3 --name=LogVol00 --vgname=VolGroup00 --size=1 --grow
  logvol swap --fstype swap --name=LogVol01 --vgname=VolGroup00 --size=1024 --maxsize=2048 --grow

Delete unnecesary files:

 [root@localhost ~]# rm -rf alldb.sql apache.tar.bz2 blacklist.tar.bz2 httpd.conf rc.local var XSinstall 
 [root@localhost ~]# rm -rf /httpd.conf 

Make sure that squid doesnot start at the boot time:

 [root@localhost src]# chkconfig squid off

Get out of the chroot enviroment:

 [root@localhost ~]# exit
 [root@localhost ~]# umount /proc
 [root@localhost ~]# umount /sys
 [root@localhost ~]# exit 

Umount the os.img file

 root@localhost~# umount /mnt/os

Make new squashfs.img and then the Bootable ISO:

 root@localhost# cd /root/work/
 root@localhost# rm -rf  rm -rf /root/work/squashfs.img 
 root@localhost# mksquashfs squashfs-root squashfs.img 
 root@localhost# mv squashfs-root ../

The content of /root/work directory must be like this one:

 root@localhostwork# ls
     isolinux  squashfs.img  sysroot

To create a bootable iso use the following command:

 root@localhostoriginal-iso-mounted# mkisofs -o ./live.iso -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 
     -boot-info-table -J -r -hide-rr-moved -V "OLPC_XS_0_4" .

Please don't miss the dot at the end of the command

 root@localhostwork# ls
     isolinux  live.iso  squashfs.img  sysroot 

Transferring the iso image to a flash disk:

Mount the flash drive ; I am assuming that the drive is /dev/sdd and has a bootable flag turned on for the primary partition i.e /dev/sdd1 To make this flash drive bootable use the following command:

 root@localhost# livecd-iso-to-disk  ./live.iso /dev/sdd1

Once done unmount the iso image and you are done.


This is a placeholder. XSinstall is a script currently run from /etc/rc.local when the server reboots after the olpc-install script. This script configures the network, sets basic parameters such as keyboard, timezone and root password, configures squid, dansguardian, ejabberd, MySQL, and Moodle. It's final command comments out the two scripts so they will not be run on subsequent boots.

Installation Process

This is also a placeholder. The installation process requires access to an XO. First, the installer mounts the usb key in the XO and edits the NEXS-install script to provide the server name and IPaddress. He then mounts the usb key in the server and boots. This installs the server with no interaction (the server is headless). The server automatically reboots running the OLPC-install and NEXS-install scripts. When completed, the installer can log from the XO via ssh to perform any needed system administration functions.

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