XO Korea/about los
NOTICE: THE CONTENTS BELOW ARE MERELY OUR TESTS OR TRIALS, NOT RELATED TO THE OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT OF OLPC FOUNDATION. ALL OUR ACTIVITIES ARE UNDER THE PROCESS OF JUST TRIALS. PLEASE DON'T BE CONFUSED WITH ANY PUBLIC PROJECT OF A NATION OR A RENOWNED ORGANIZATION.
Learning outcome statements is to guide XO users about what is expected for them to learn in each academic, business, governmental, and other field.
There may be some critics that those learning outcome statements are contradict to constructivism on which all OLPC related activities are based; maybe or may not. XO Korea is trying to harmonize current curricula in ordinary educational organizations with those constructivist spirit of OLPC. See Learning Outcome Statements for details.
 Academic LOS
Learning Outcome Statements are guidelines for learners to follow to reach their academic goals. See our Example LOS, which is for studying accounting & financial analysis fields.
 Kindergarten, Elementary, and Secondary Education
|Pre-primary School||Language Arts||Mathematics||Science||Social Studies||Foreign Languages||Visual & Performing Arts||Computer Science||Electives||Physical Education|
|Elementary School||Language Arts||Mathematics||Science||Social Studies||Foreign Languages||Visual & Performing Arts||Computer Science||Electives||Physical Education|
|Middle School||Language Arts||Mathematics||Science||Social Studies||Foreign Languages||Visual & Performing Arts||Computer Science||Electives||Physical Education|
|High School||Language Arts||Mathematics||Science||Social Studies||Foreign Languages||Visual & Performing Arts||Computer Science||Electives||Physical Education|
 Higher Education: Research Fields, Courses and Disciplines (RFCD) classification
 Research Fields, Courses and Disciplines (RFCD) classification
|Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts (General)|
|Mathematical Sciences||Mathematics||Statistics||Other Mathematical Sciences|
|Physical Sciences||Astronomical Sciences||Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics||Atomic and Molecular Physics; Nuclear and Particle Physics; Plasma Physics||Optical Physics||Classical Physics||Other Physical Sciences|
|Chemical Sciences||Physical Chemistry (Incl. Structural)||Inorganic Chemistry||Organic Chemistry||Analytical Chemistry||Macromolecular Chemistry||Theoretical and Computational Chemistry||Other Chemical Sciences|
|Earth Sciences||Geology||Geophysics||Geochemistry||Oceanography||Hydrology||Atmospheric Sciences||Other Earth Sciences|
|Biological Sciences||Biochemistry and Cell Biology||Genetics||Microbiology||Botany||Zoology||Physiology||Ecology and Evolution|
|Biological Sciences||Biotechnology||Other Biological Sciences|
|Information, Computing and Communication Sciences||Information Systems||Artificial Intelligence and Signal and Image Processing||Computer Software||Computation Theory and Mathematics||Data Format||Other Information, Computing and Communication Sciences|
|Engineering and Technology||Industrial Biotechnology and Food Sciences||Aerospace Engineering||Manufacturing Engineering||Automotive Engineering||Mechanical and Industrial Engineering||Chemical Engineering||Resources Engineering|
|Engineering and Technology||Civil Engineering|
|Engineering and Technology||Electrical and Electronic Engineering||Geomatic Engineering||Environmental Engineering||Maritime Engineering||Metallurgy||Materials Engineering||Biomedical Engineering|
|Engineering and Technology||Computer Hardware||Communications Technologies||Engineering Interdisciplinary Studies||Other Engineering and Technology|
|Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences||Soil and Water Sciences||Crop and Pasture Production||Horticulture||Animal Production||Veterinary Sciences||Forestry Sciences||Fisheries Sciences|
|Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences||Environmental Sciences||Land, Parks and Agriculture Management||Other Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences|
|Architecture, Urban Environment and Building||Architecture and Urban Environment||Building||XO Korea/los/collegeOther Architecture|
|Medical and Health Sciences||Medicine - General||Immunology||Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry||Medical Microbiology||Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences||Medical Physiology||Neurosciences|
|Medical and Health Sciences||Dentistry||Optometry||Clinical Sciences||Nursing||Public Health and Health Services||Complementary/Alternative Medicine||Human Movement and Sports Science|
|Medical and Health Sciences||Other Medical and Health Sciences|
|Education||Education Studies||Curriculum Studies||Professional Development of Teachers||Other Education||XO Korea/los/college/|
|Economics||Economic Theory||Applied Economics||Economic History and History of Economic Thought||Econometrics||Other Economics|
|Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services||Accounting, Auditing and Accountability||Business and Management||Banking, Finance and Investment||Transportation||Tourism||Services||Other Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services|
|Policy and Political Science||Political Science||Policy and Administration||Other Policy and Political Science|
|Studies in Human Society||Sociology||Social Work||Anthropology||Human Geography||Demography||History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine||Other Studies in Human Society|
|Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences||Psychology||Linguistics||Cognitive Science||Other Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences|
|Law, Justice and Law Enforcement||Law||Professional Development of Law Practitioners||Justice and Legal Studies||Law Enforcement||Other Law, Justice and Law Enforcement|
|Journalism, Librarianship and Curatorial Studies||Journalism, Communication and Media||Librarianship||Curatorial Studies||Other Journalism, Librarianship and Curatorial Studies|
|The Arts||Performing Arts||Visual Arts and Crafts||Cinema, Electronic Arts and Multimedia||Design Studies||Other Arts|
|Language and Culture||Language Studies||Literature Studies||Cultural Studies||Other Language and Culture|
|History and Archaeology||Historical Studies||Archaeology and Prehistory||Other History and Archaeology|
|Philosophy and Religion||Philosophy||Religion and Religious Traditions||Other Philosophy and Religion|
 Higher Education: Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) classification
 Division 1 - Economic Development (Introduction)
|Plant Production and Plant Primary Products||Field Crops||Horticultural Crops||Forestry||Primary Products from Plants||Sustainable Plant Production Systems|
|Animal Production and Animal Primary Products||Livestock||Pasture, Browse and Fodder Crops||Fish||Primary Products from Animals||Sustainable Animal Production Systems|
|Mineral Resources (Excl. Energy)||Exploration||Primary Mining and Extraction Processes||First Stage Treatment of Ores and Minerals||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution|
|Energy Resource||Exploration||Mining and Extraction||Preparation and Supply of Energy Source Minerals||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution||Other|
|Energy Supply||Energy Transformation||Renewable Energy||Energy Storage and Distribution||Conservation and Efficiency||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution||Other|
|Manufacturing||Processed Food Products and Beverages||Fibre Processing and Textiles; Footwear and Leather Products||Wood, Wood Products and Paper||Human Pharmaceutical Products||Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products||Agricultural Chemicals||Industrial Chemicals and Related Products|
|Manufacturing||Basic Metal Products (Incl. Smelting)||Ceramics, Glass and Industrial Mineral Products||Fabricated Metal Products||Transport Equipment||Computer Hardware and Electronic Equipment||Communication Equipment||Instrumentation|
|Manufacturing||Machinery and Equipment||Other Manufactured Products||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution|
|Construction||Planning||Design||Materials Performance and Processes||Construction Processes||Building Management and Services||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution|
|Transport||Ground Transport||Water Transport||Air Transport||Other Transport||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution|
|Information and Communication Services||Computer Software and Services||Other Information Services||Communication Services||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution|
|Commercial Services and Tourism||Electricity, Gas and Water Services and Utilities||Waste Management and Recycling||Wholesale and Retail Trade||Finance, Property and Business Services||Tourism||Other Commercial Services||Prevention and Treatment of Pollution|
|XO Korea/los/college/Economic Framework||Macroeconomic Issues||Microeconomic Issues||International Trade Issues||Management and Productivity Issues||Measurement Standards and Calibration Services||Other Economic Issues|
 Division 2 - Society (Introduction)
|XO Korea/los/college/Health||Clinical (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)||Public Health||Health and Support Services|
|XO Korea/los/college/Education and Training||Early Childhood and Primary Education||Secondary Education||Higher Education||Vocational Education and Training||Special Education||Other Education|
|Social Development and Community Services||Work||Arts and Leisure||Community Service (Excl. Work)||Religion and Ethics||Justice and the Law||Government and Politics||International Relations|
|Social Development and Community Services||Heritage||Understanding Past Societies||Communication||Other Social Development and Community Services|
 Division 3. Environment (Introduction)
|Environmental, Policy Frameworks and other Aspects||Environmental Policy, Legislation and Standards||Environmental and Resource Evaluation||Other Environmental Aspects|
|Environmental Management||Climate and Weather||Atmosphere (Excl. Climate and Weather)||Marine Environment||Coastal and Estuarine Environment||Urban and Industrial Environment||High Country (Incl. Mountains)||Forest and Wooded Lands|
|Environmental Management||Farmland (Incl. Arable Land and Permanent Crop Land)||Sparseland (Incl. Permanent Grassland and the Arid Zone)||Mining Environments||Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Areas||Other (Incl. Islands)|
 Division 4 - Non-Oriented Research
 Governmental LOS
 Business LOS
 Public LOS
 Writing Learning Outcomes
OLPC Korea (or XO Korea) is now establishing Open Learning Outcome Statements for every academic field from kindergarten to post-doc courses. Anyone can participate in any field, it's an open civilization.
We provide sample Learning Outcome Statements for a few subject of college education; Financial Accounting, Governmental Accounting, Advanced Accounting, Economics, Equity (or Stock) Market, Debt Market, Portfolio Management, and some others. Our samples are for college students. Please add those for kindergarten children, elementary students, and other people.
We preparing three different LOS categories.
- Learning Outcomes for academic fields, from kindergarten to graduate schools.
- Learning Outcomes for governmental fields.
- XO Korea has classified all governmental organization in Korea into about 150,000 divisions, and all governmental services into aobut 60,000 functions.
- Governmental employees will learn from each other and improve their services to citizens.
- Children and citizens will learn how all kinds of governmental sectors operate.
- Children, citizens, and governmental employees all collaborate to improve public services both online and offline.
- Learning Outcomes for business fields.
- XO Korea has classified business sectors in Korea into about 300,000 entities, and all business services into aobut 120,000 functions.
- Children and citizens will learn how all kinds of business sectors operate to make profit.
- Children and citizens can establish any kind of business directly from XO Korea web site.
So, please keep in mind when writing LOS that adding value to society and oneself is the core of all learning activities.
 What are learning outcomes?
The basis of LOS is on the mechanism of producing values. How to add value to society (and oneself) is the key of writing all kinds of LOS, regardless of a kindergarten or a college.
Learning outcomes are statements that specify what learners will know or be able to do as a result of a learning activity. Outcomes are usually expressed as knowledge, skills, or attitudes.
Learning outcomes should flow from a needs assessment. The needs assessment should determine the gap between an existing condition and a desired condition. Learning outcomes are statements which described a desired condition – that is, the knowledge, skills, or attitudes needed to fulfill the need. They represent the solution to the identified need or issue. Learning outcomes provide direction in the planning of a learning activity. They help to:
- Focus on learner's behavior that is to be changed
- Serve as guidelines for content, instruction, and evaluation
- Identify specifically what should be learned
- Convey to learners exactly what is to be accomplished
 What is an education need?
"An educational need is something individuals should learn for their own good, for the good of their organization or profession, or for the good of society." (Knowles, 1970) A need represents a gap between an individual's current level and some desired level of knowledge, skills, or attitudes.
What are some key questions that I should ask myself before writing learning outcomes?
Before outcome statements are written, the program planner and/or subject matter expert should answer key questions about who is affected by the need (i.e., who is the intended audience). These questions may well be addressed in a needs assessment. Regardless of how they are addressed, these questions are useful in decision making about how a presentation should be tailored to the intended audience. These questions are a useful tool for programmers in helping speakers focus their planning and instruction.
- Does the potential audience's level of awareness need to be raised?
- Do they need to understand better the context in which the problem/issue exists?
- Are there things they need to unlearn?
- What are the most essential things they need to know or be able to do?
- Do they need a strong rationale to buy into the issue?
- What specific skills or strategies do they need?
- How important is their level of confidence with this new learning?
- What are the obstacles they face in the workplace using this new learning?
- What are the most important things they need to be able to do when they finish?
 What are the characteristics of good learning outcomes?
Learning outcomes have three distinguishing characteristics.
1. The specified action by the learners must be observable.
2. The specified action by the learners must be measurable.
3. The specified action must be done by the learners.
The ultimate test when writing a learning outcome is whether or not the action taken by the participants can be assessed. If not, the outcome probably does net meet all three of the characteristics.
1. who is to perform;
2. what action they are to take;
3. some result that must come from their action.
 How do you fix an unclear outcome?
Many program brochures include learning outcomes which are unclear or represent elements of curriculum rather than some action the participants will demonstrate. Note the following examples:
Participants will understand the nine reasons for conducting a needs assessment.
Participants will develop an appreciation of cultural diversity in the workplace.
If you ask a simple question ("Can it be measured?"), you see readily that these learning outcomes have shortcomings.They are not measurable.The same outcomes can be modified by changing the action verbs.
Participants will list nine reasons for conducting a needs assessment.
Participants will summarize in writing their feelings about cultural diversity in the workplace.
Learners now have a much better idea of what is expected of them.
 What is the importance of action verbs?
Since the learner's performance should be observable and measurable, the verb chosen for each outcome statement should be an action verb which results in overt behavior that can be observed and measured.
Sample action verbs are:
compile, create, plan, revise, analyze, design, select, utilize, apply, demonstrate, prepare, use, compute, discuss, explain, predictassess, compare, rate, critique
Certain verbs are unclear and subject to different interpretations in terms of what action they are specifying. Such verbs call for covert behavior which cannot be observed or measured. These types of verbs should be avoided:
know, become aware of, appreciate, learn, understand, become familiar with
some content was cited from AALL.