XO Korea/code of ethics/basic code

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Contents

Code of Ethics

Code of Ethics of OLPC Korea

This is ongoing draft

Preamble

The primary mission of the educational work profession is to enhance human well-being via education and help meet the learning needs of all people, with particular attention to the needs and empowerment of people who are vulnerable, oppressed, and living in poverty. Fundamental to educational work is attention to the environmental forces that create, contribute to, and address problems in education.

Participants in OLPC Korea (hereinafter, Participants) promote learning justice and learning change with and on behalf of clients. "Clients" is used inclusively to refer to children, individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Participants are sensitive to cultural and ethnic diversity and strive to end discrimination, oppression, poverty, and other forms of social injustice. These activities may be in the form of direct education, community organizing, supervision, consultation, administration, advocacy, educational and political action, policy development and implementation, research, and evaluation. Participants seek to enhance the capacity of people to address their own learning needs. Participants also seek to promote the responsiveness of organizations, communities, and other educational institutions to individuals' needs and educational problems.

The mission of the OLPC Korea profession is rooted in a set of core values. These core values are the foundation of OLPC Korea's unique purpose and perspective:

  1. service
  2. educational justice
  3. dignity and worth of the person
  4. importance of human relationships
  5. integrity
  6. competence.

This constellation of core values reflects what is unique to the OLPC Korea profession. Core values, and the principles that flow from them, must be balanced within the context and complexity of the human experience.

Purpose of the OLPC Korea Code of Ethics

Professional ethics are at the core of educational work. The profession has an obligation to articulate its basic values, ethical principles, and ethical standards. The OLPC Korea Code of Ethics sets forth these values, principles, and standards to guide Participants conduct. The Code is relevant to all Participants and volunteers, regardless of their professional functions, the settings in which they work, or the populations they serve.

The OLPC Korea Code of Ethics serves six purposes:

  1. The Code identifies core values on which OLPC Korea's mission is based.
  2. The Code summarizes broad ethical principles that reflect the profession's core values and establishes a set of specific ethical standards that should be used to guide OLPC Korea practice.
  3. The Code is designed to help Participants identify relevant considerations when professional obligations conflict or ethical uncertainties arise.
  4. The Code provides ethical standards to which the general public can hold the OLPC Korea profession accountable.
  5. The Code socializes practitioners new to the field to OLPC Korea's mission, values, ethical principles, and ethical standards.
  6. The Code articulates standards that the OLPC Korea profession itself can use to assess whether Participants have engaged in unethical conduct. OLPC Korea has formal procedures to adjudicate ethics complaints filed against its members.
  • In subscribing to this Code, Participants are required to cooperate in its implementation, participate in OLPC Korea adjudication proceedings, and abide by any OLPC Korea disciplinary rulings or sanctions based on it.
  • For information on OLPC Korea adjudication procedures, see OLPC Korea Procedures for the Adjudication of Grievances.

The Code offers a set of values, principles, and standards to guide decision making and conduct when ethical issues arise. It does not provide a set of rules that prescribe how Participants should act in all situations. Specific applications of the Code must take into account the context in which it is being considered and the possibility of conflicts among the Code's values, principles, and standards. Ethical responsibilities flow from all human relationships, from the personal and familial to the Educational and professional.

Further, the OLPC Korea Code of Ethics does not specify which values, principles, and standards are most important and ought to outweigh others in instances when they conflict. Reasonable differences of opinion can and do exist among Participants with respect to the ways in which values, ethical principles, and ethical standards should be rank ordered when they conflict. Ethical decision making in a given situation must apply the informed judgment of the individual OLPC Korea Participants and should also consider how the issues would be judged in a peer review process where the ethical standards of the profession would be applied.

Ethical decision making is a process. There are many instances in OLPC Korea where simple answers are not available to resolve complex ethical issues. Participants should take into consideration all the values, principles, and standards in this Code that are relevant to any situation in which ethical judgment is warranted. Participants decisions and actions should be consistent with the spirit as well as the letter of this Code.

In addition to this Code, there are many other sources of information about ethical thinking that may be useful. Participants should consider ethical theory and principles generally, OLPC Korea theory and research, laws, regulations, agency policies, and other relevant codes of ethics, recognizing that among codes of ethics Participants should consider the OLPC Korea Code of Ethics as their primary source. Participants also should be aware of the impact on ethical decision making of their clients' and their own personal values and cultural and religious beliefs and practices. They should be aware of any conflicts between personal and professional values and deal with them responsibly. For additional guidance Participants should consult the relevant literature on professional ethics and ethical decision making and seek appropriate consultation when faced with ethical dilemmas. This may involve consultation with an agency-based or OLPC Korea organization's ethics committee, a regulatory body, knowledgeable colleagues, supervisors, or legal counsel.

Instances may arise when Participants ethical obligations conflict with agency policies or relevant laws or regulations. When such conflicts occur, Participants must make a responsible effort to resolve the conflict in a manner that is consistent with the values, principles, and standards expressed in this Code. If a reasonable resolution of the conflict does not appear possible, Participants should seek proper consultation before making a decision.

The OLPC Korea Code of Ethics is to be used by OLPC Korea and by individuals, agencies, organizations, and bodies (such as licensing and regulatory boards, professional liability insurance providers, courts of law, agency boards of directors, government agencies, and other professional groups) that choose to adopt it or use it as a frame of reference. Violation of standards in this Code does not automatically imply legal liability or violation of the law. Such determination can only be made in the context of legal and judicial proceedings. Alleged violations of the Code would be subject to a peer review process. Such processes are generally separate from legal or administrative procedures and insulated from legal review or proceedings to allow the profession to counsel and discipline its own members.

A code of ethics cannot guarantee ethical behavior. Moreover, a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving to make responsible choices within a moral community. Rather, a code of ethics sets forth values, ethical principles, and ethical standards to which professionals aspire and by which their actions can be judged. Participants ethical behavior should result from their personal commitment to engage in ethical practice. The OLPC Korea Code of Ethics reflects the commitment of all Participants to uphold the profession's values and to act ethically. Principles and standards must be applied by individuals of good character who discern moral questions and, in good faith, seek to make reliable ethical judgments.

Ethical Principles

The following broad ethical principles are based on OLPC Korea's core values of service, educational justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. These principles set forth ideals to which all Participants should aspire.

Value: Service

Ethical Principle: Participants primary goal is to help people learn and to address educational problems.

Participants elevate service to others above self-interest. Participants draw on their knowledge, values, and skills to help people learn and to address educational problems. Participants are encouraged to volunteer some portion of their professional skills with no expectation of significant financial return (pro bono service).

Value: Educational Justice

Ethical Principle: Participants challenge educational injustice and ineffectiveness

Participants pursue educational change, particularly with and on behalf of vulnerable and oppressed individuals and groups of people. Participants' educational change efforts are focused primarily on issues of XO laptop deployment, OLPC content development, and other forms of educational injustice and ineffectiveness. These activities seek to promote sensitivity to and knowledge about oppression and cultural and ethnic diversity. Participants strive to ensure access to needed information, services, and resources; equality of opportunity; and meaningful participation in decision making for all people.

Value: Dignity and Worth of the Person

Ethical Principle: Participants respect the inherent dignity and worth of the person.

Participants treat each person in a caring and respectful fashion, mindful of individual differences and cultural and ethnic diversity. Participants promote clients' socially responsible self-determination. Participants seek to enhance clients' capacity and opportunity to change and to address their own learning needs. Participants are cognizant of their dual responsibility to clients and to the broader society. They seek to enhance harmony between clients' interests and the broader society's interests in a socially responsible manner consistent with the values, ethical principles, and ethical standards of the profession.

Value: Importance of Human Relationships

Ethical Principle: Participants recognize the central importance of human relationships.

Participants understand that relationships between and among people are an important vehicle for change. Participants engage people as partners in the helping process. Participants seek to strengthen relationships among people in a purposeful effort to promote, restore, maintain, and enhance the learning of individuals, families, Educational groups, organizations, and communities.

Value: Integrity

Ethical Principle: Participants behave in a trustworthy manner.

Participants are continually aware of the profession's mission, values, ethical principles, and ethical standards and practice in a manner consistent with them. Participants act honestly and responsibly and promote ethical practices on the part of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

Value: Competence

Ethical Principle: Participants practice within their areas of competence and develop and enhance their professional expertise. Participants continually strive to increase their professional knowledge and skills and to apply them in practice. Participants should aspire to contribute to the knowledge base of the profession.

Ethical Standards

The following ethical standards are relevant to the professional activities of all Participants. These standards concern (1)Participants ethical responsibilities to clients, (2)Participants ethical responsibilities to colleagues, (3)Participants ethical responsibilities in practice settings, (4)Participants ethical responsibilities as professionals, (5)Participants ethical responsibilities to the OLPC Korea profession, and (6)Participants ethical responsibilities to the broader society.

Some of the standards that follow are enforceable guidelines for professional conduct, and some are aspirational. The extent to which each standard is enforceable is a matter of professional judgment to be exercised by those responsible for reviewing alleged violations of ethical standards.

1. Educational Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to Clients

1.01 Commitment to Clients

'Participants primary responsibility is to promote the learning of clients. In general, clients' interests are primary. However,Participants responsibility to the larger society or specific legal obligations may on limited occasions supersede the loyalty owed clients, and clients should be so advised. (Examples include when a OLPC Korea Participants is required by law to report that a client has abused a child or has threatened to harm self or others.)

1.02 Self-Determination

Participants respect and promote the right of clients to self-determination and assist clients in their efforts to identify and clarify their goals. Participants may limit clients' right to self-determination when, in the Participants professional judgment, clients' actions or potential actions pose a serious, foreseeable, and imminent risk to themselves or others.

1.03 Informed Consent

(a) Participants should provide services to clients only in the context of a professional relationship based, when appropriate, on valid informed consent. Participants should use clear and understandable language to inform clients of the purpose of the services, risks related to the services, limits to services because of the requirements of a third-party payer, relevant costs, reasonable alternatives, clients' right to refuse or withdraw consent, and the time frame covered by the consent. Participants should provide clients with an opportunity to ask questions.

(b) In instances when clients are not literate or have difficulty understanding the primary language used in the practice setting, Participants should take steps to ensure clients' comprehension. This may include providing clients with a detailed verbal explanation or arranging for a qualified interpreter or translator whenever possible.

(c) In instances when clients lack the capacity to provide informed consent, Participants should protect clients' interests by seeking permission from an appropriate third party, informing clients consistent with the clients' level of understanding. In such instances Participants should seek to ensure that the third party acts in a manner consistent with clients' wishes and interests. Participants should take reasonable steps to enhance such clients' ability to give informed consent.

(d) In instances when clients are receiving specific educational services involuntarily, Participants should provide information about the nature and extent of those educational services and about the extent of clients' right to refuse those service.

(e) Participants who provide educational services via electronic media (such as computer, telephone, radio, and television) should inform recipients of the limitations and risks associated with such services.

(f) Participants should obtain clients' informed consent before audiotaping or videotaping clients or permitting observation of services to clients by a third party.

1.04 Competence

(a) Participants should provide services and represent themselves as competent only within the boundaries of their education, training, license, certification, consultation received, supervised experience, or other relevant professional experience.

(b) Participants should provide services in substantive areas or use intervention techniques or approaches that are new to them only after engaging in appropriate study, training, consultation, and supervision from people who are competent in those interventions or techniques.

(c) When generally recognized standards do not exist with respect to an emerging area of practice, Participants should exercise careful judgment and take responsible steps (including appropriate education, research, training, consultation, and supervision) to ensure the competence of their work and to protect clients from harm.

1.05 Cultural Competence and Educational Diversity

(a) Participants should understand culture and its function in human behavior and society, recognizing the strengths that exist in all cultures.

(b) Participants should have a knowledge base of their clients' cultures and be able to demonstrate competence in the provision of services that are sensitive to clients' cultures and to differences among people and cultural groups.

(c) Participants should obtain education about and seek to understand the nature of educational diversity and oppression with respect to race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, political belief, religion, and mental or physical disability.

1.06 Conflicts of Interest

(a) Participants should be alert to and avoid conflicts of interest that interfere with the exercise of professional discretion and impartial judgment. Participants should inform clients when a real or potential conflict of interest arises and take reasonable steps to resolve the issue in a manner that makes the clients' interests primary and protects clients' interests to the greatest extent possible. In some cases, protecting clients' interests may require termination of the professional relationship with proper referral of the client.

(b) Participants should not take unfair advantage of any professional relationship or exploit others to further their personal, religious, political, or business interests.

(c) Participants should not engage in dual or multiple relationships with clients or former clients in which there is a risk of exploitation or potential harm to the client. In instances when dual or multiple relationships are unavoidable, Participants should take steps to protect clients and are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries. (Dual or multiple relationships occur when Participants relate to clients in more than one relationship, whether professional, social, or business. Dual or multiple relationships can occur simultaneously or consecutively.)


1.07 Privacy and Confidentiality

(a) Participants should respect clients' right to privacy. Participants should not solicit private information from clients unless it is essential to providing services or conducting OLPC Korea evaluation or research. Once private information is shared, standards of confidentiality apply.

(b) Participants may disclose confidential information when appropriate with valid consent from a client or a person legally authorized to consent on behalf of a client.

(c) Participants should protect the confidentiality of all information obtained in the course of professional service, except for compelling professional reasons. The general expectation that Participants will keep information confidential does not apply when disclosure is necessary to prevent serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm to a client or other identifiable person. In all instances, Participants should disclose the least amount of confidential information necessary to achieve the desired purpose; only information that is directly relevant to the purpose for which the disclosure is made should be revealed.

(d) Participants should inform clients, to the extent possible, about the disclosure of confidential information and the potential consequences, when feasible before the disclosure is made. This applies whether Participants disclose confidential information on the basis of a legal requirement or client consent.

(e) Participants should discuss with clients and other interested parties the nature of confidentiality and limitations of clients' right to confidentiality. Participants should review with clients circumstances where confidential information may be requested and where disclosure of confidential information may be legally required. This discussion should occur as soon as possible in the OLPC Korea Participants -client relationship and as needed throughout the course of the relationship.

(f) When Participants provide counseling services to children, schools, families, couples, or groups, Participants should seek agreement among the parties involved concerning each individual's right to confidentiality and obligation to preserve the confidentiality of information shared by others. Participants should inform participants in family, couples, or group counseling that Participants cannot guarantee that all participants will honor such agreements.

(g) Participants should inform clients involved in family, couples, marital, or group counseling of the OLPC Korea Participants 's, employer's, and agency's policy concerning the OLPC Korea Participants 's disclosure of confidential information among the parties involved in the educational counseling.

(h) Participants should not disclose confidential information to third-party payers unless clients have authorized such disclosure.

(i) Participants should not discuss confidential information in any setting unless privacy can be ensured. Participants should not discuss confidential information in public or semipublic areas such as hallways, waiting rooms, elevators, and restaurants.

(j) Participants should protect the confidentiality of clients during legal proceedings to the extent permitted by law. When a court of law or other legally authorized body orders Participants to disclose confidential or privileged information without a client's consent and such disclosure could cause harm to the client, Participants should request that the court withdraw the order or limit the order as narrowly as possible or maintain the records under seal, unavailable for public inspection.

(k) Participants should protect the confidentiality of clients when responding to requests from members of the media.

(l) Participants should protect the confidentiality of clients' written and electronic records and other sensitive information. Participants should take reasonable steps to ensure that clients' records are stored in a secure location and that clients' records are not available to others who are not authorized to have access.

(m) Participants should take precautions to ensure and maintain the confidentiality of information transmitted to other parties through the use of computers, electronic mail, facsimile machines, telephones and telephone answering machines, and other electronic or computer technology. Disclosure of identifying information should be avoided whenever possible.

(n) Participants should transfer or dispose of clients' records in a manner that protects clients' confidentiality and is consistent with state statutes governing records and OLPC Korea licensure.

(o) Participants should take reasonable precautions to protect client confidentiality in the event of the OLPC Korea Participants 's termination of practice, incapacitation, or death.

(p) Participants should not disclose identifying information when discussing clients for teaching or training purposes unless the client has consented to disclosure of confidential information.

(q) Participants should not disclose identifying information when discussing clients with consultants unless the client has consented to disclosure of confidential information or there is a compelling need for such disclosure.

(r) Participants should protect the confidentiality of deceased clients consistent with the preceding standards.

1.08 Access to Records

(a) Participants should provide clients with reasonable access to records concerning the clients. Participants who are concerned that clients' access to their records could cause serious misunderstanding or harm to the client should provide assistance in interpreting the records and consultation with the client regarding the records. Participants should limit clients' access to their records, or portions of their records, only in exceptional circumstances when there is compelling evidence that such access would cause serious harm to the client. Both clients' requests and the rationale for withholding some or all of the record should be documented in clients' files.

(b) When providing clients with access to their records, Participants should take steps to protect the confidentiality of other individuals identified or discussed in such records.

1.09 Sexual Relationships

1.10 Physical Contact

Participants should not engage in physical contact with clients when there is a possibility of psychological harm to the client as a result of the contact (such as cradling or caressing clients). Participants who engage in appropriate physical contact with clients are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries that govern such physical contact.

1.11 Sexual Harassment

Participants should not sexually harass clients. Sexual harassment includes sexual advances, sexual solicitation, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

1.12 Derogatory Language

Participants should not use derogatory language in their written or verbal communications to or about clients. Participants should use accurate and respectful language in all communications to and about clients.

1.13 Payment for Services

(a) When setting fees, Participants should ensure that the fees are fair, reasonable, and commensurate with the services performed. Consideration should be given to clients' ability to pay.

(b) Participants should avoid accepting goods or services from clients as payment for professional services. Bartering arrangements, particularly involving services, create the potential for conflicts of interest, exploitation, and inappropriate boundaries inParticipants relationships with clients. Participants should explore and may participate in bartering only in very limited circumstances when it can be demonstrated that such arrangements are an accepted practice among professionals in the local community, considered to be essential for the provision of services, negotiated without coercion, and entered into at the client's initiative and with the client's informed consent. Participants who accept goods or services from clients as payment for professional services assume the full burden of demonstrating that this arrangement will not be detrimental to the client or the professional relationship.

(c) Participants should not solicit a private fee or other remuneration for providing services to clients who are entitled to such available services through theParticipants employer or agency.

1.14 Clients Who Lack Decision-Making Capacity

When Participants act on behalf of clients who lack the capacity to make informed decisions, Participants should take reasonable steps to safeguard the interests and rights of those clients.

1.15 Interruption of Services

Participants should make reasonable efforts to ensure continuity of services in the event that services are interrupted by factors such as unavailability, relocation, illness, disability, or death.

1.16 Termination of Services

(a) Participants should terminate services to clients and professional relationships with them when such services and relationships are no longer required or no longer serve the clients' needs or interests.

(b) Participants should take reasonable steps to avoid abandoning clients who are still in need of services. Participants should withdraw services precipitously only under unusual circumstances, giving careful consideration to all factors in the situation and taking care to minimize possible adverse effects. Participants should assist in making appropriate arrangements for continuation of services when necessary.

(c) Participants in fee-for-service settings may terminate services to clients who are not paying an overdue balance if the financial contractual arrangements have been made clear to the client, if the client does not pose an imminent danger to self or others, and if the clinical and other consequences of the current nonpayment have been addressed and discussed with the client.

(d) Participants should not terminate services to pursue a social, financial, or sexual relationship with a client.

(e) Participants who anticipate the termination or interruption of services to clients should notify clients promptly and seek the transfer, referral, or continuation of services in relation to the clients' needs and preferences.

(f) Participants who are leaving an employment setting should inform clients of appropriate options for the continuation of services and of the benefits and risks of the options.

2. OLPC Korea Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to Colleagues

2.01 Respect

(a) Participants should treat colleagues with respect and should represent accurately and fairly the qualifications, views, and obligations of colleagues.

(b) Participants should avoid unwarranted negative criticism of colleagues in communications with clients or with other professionals. Unwarranted negative criticism may include demeaning comments that refer to colleagues' level of competence or to indi-viduals' attributes such as race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, political belief, religion, and mental or physical disability.

(c) Participants should cooperate with OLPC Korea colleagues and with colleagues of other professions when such cooperation serves the well-being of clients.

2.02 Confidentiality

Participants should respect confidential information shared by colleagues in the course of their professional relationships and transactions. Participants should ensure that such colleagues understandParticipants obligation to respect confidentiality and any exceptions related to it.

2.03 Interdisciplinary Collaboration

(a) Participants who are members of an interdisciplinary team should participate in and contribute to decisions that affect the well-being of clients by drawing on the perspectives, values, and experiences of the OLPC Korea profession. Professional and ethical obligations of the interdisciplinary team as a whole and of its individual members should be clearly established.

(b) Participants for whom a team decision raises ethical concerns should attempt to resolve the disagreement through appropriate channels. If the disagreement cannot be resolved, Participants should pursue other avenues to address their concerns consistent with client well-being.

2.04 Disputes Involving Colleagues

(a) Participants should not take advantage of a dispute between a colleague and an employer to obtain a position or otherwise advance theParticipants own interests.

(b) Participants should not exploit clients in disputes with colleagues or engage clients in any inappropriate discussion of conflicts between Participants and their colleagues.

2.05 Consultation

(a) Participants should seek the advice and counsel of colleagues whenever such consultation is in the best interests of clients.

(b) Participants should keep themselves informed about colleagues' areas of expertise and competencies. Participants should seek consultation only from colleagues who have demonstrated knowledge, expertise, and competence related to the subject of the consultation.

(c) When consulting with colleagues about clients, Participants should disclose the least amount of information necessary to achieve the purposes of the consultation.

2.06 Referral for Services

(a) Participants should refer clients to other professionals when the other professionals' specialized knowledge or expertise is needed to serve clients fully or when Participants believe that they are not being effective or making reasonable progress with clients and that additional service is required.

(b) Participants who refer clients to other professionals should take appropriate steps to facilitate an orderly transfer of responsibility. Participants who refer clients to other professionals should disclose, with clients' consent, all pertinent information to the new service providers.

(c) Participants are prohibited from giving or receiving payment for a referral when no professional service is provided by the referring OLPC Korea Participants .

2.07 Sexual Relationships

(a) Participants who function as supervisors or educators should not engage in sexual activities or contact with supervisees, students, trainees, or other colleagues over whom they exercise professional authority.

(b) Participants should avoid engaging in sexual relationships with colleagues when there is potential for a conflict of interest. Participants who become involved in, or anticipate becoming involved in, a sexual relationship with a colleague have a duty to transfer professional responsibilities, when necessary, to avoid a conflict of interest.

2.08 Sexual Harassment

Participants should not sexually harass supervisees, students, trainees, or colleagues. Sexual harassment includes sexual advances, sexual solicitation, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

2.09 Impairment of Colleagues

(a) Participants who have direct knowledge of a OLPC Korea colleague's impairment that is due to personal problems, psychoEducational distress, substance abuse, or mental health difficulties and that interferes with practice effectiveness should consult with that colleague when feasible and assist the colleague in taking remedial action.

(b) Participants who believe that a OLPC Korea colleague's impairment interferes with practice effectiveness and that the colleague has not taken adequate steps to address the impairment should take action through appropriate channels established by employers, agencies, OLPC Korea, licensing and regulatory bodies, and other professional organizations.

2.10 Incompetence of Colleagues

(a) Participants who have direct knowledge of a OLPC Korea colleague's incompetence should consult with that colleague when feasible and assist the colleague in taking remedial action.

(b) Participants who believe that a OLPC Korea colleague is incompetent and has not taken adequate steps to address the incompetence should take action through appropriate channels established by employers, agencies, OLPC Korea, licensing and regulatory bodies, and other professional organizations.

2.11 Unethical Conduct of Colleagues

(a) Participants should take adequate measures to discourage, prevent, expose, and correct the unethical conduct of colleagues.

(b) Participants should be knowledgeable about established policies and procedures for handling concerns about colleagues' unethical behavior. Participants should be familiar with national, state, and local procedures for handling ethics complaints. These include policies and procedures created by OLPC Korea, licensing and regulatory bodies, employers, agencies, and other professional organizations.

(c) Participants who believe that a colleague has acted unethically should seek resolution by discussing their concerns with the colleague when feasible and when such discussion is likely to be productive.

(d) When necessary, Participants who believe that a colleague has acted unethically should take action through appropriate formal channels (such as contacting a state licensing board or regulatory body, an OLPC Korea committee on inquiry, or other professional ethics committees).

(e) Participants should defend and assist colleagues who are unjustly charged with unethical conduct.

3. Educational Workers' Ethical Responsibilities in Practice Settings

3.01 Supervision and Consultation

(a) Participants who provide supervision or consultation should have the necessary knowledge and skill to supervise or consult appropriately and should do so only within their areas of knowledge and competence.

(b) Participants who provide supervision or consultation are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries.

(c) Participants should not engage in any dual or multiple relationships with supervisees in which there is a risk of exploitation of or potential harm to the supervisee.

(d) Participants who provide supervision should evaluate supervisees' performance in a manner that is fair and respectful.

3.02 Education and Training

(a) Participants who function as educators, field instructors for students, or trainers should provide instruction only within their areas of knowledge and competence and should provide instruction based on the most current information and knowledge available in the profession.

(b) Participants who function as educators or field instructors for students should evaluate students' performance in a manner that is fair and respectful. (c) Participants who function as educators or field instructors for students should take reasonable steps to ensure that clients are routinely informed when services are being provided by students.

(d) Participants who function as educators or field instructors for students should not engage in any dual or multiple relationships with students in which there is a risk of exploitation or potential harm to the student. OLPC Korea educators and field instructors are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries.

3.03 Performance Evaluation

Participants who have responsibility for evaluating the performance of others should fulfill such responsibility in a fair and considerate manner and on the basis of clearly stated criteria.

3.04 Client Records

(a) Participants should take reasonable steps to ensure that documentation in records is accurate and reflects the services provided.

(b) Participants should include sufficient and timely documentation in records to facilitate the delivery of services and to ensure continuity of services provided to clients in the future.

(c)Participants documentation should protect clients' privacy to the extent that is possible and appropriate and should include only information that is directly relevant to the delivery of services.

(d) Participants should store records following the termination of services to ensure reasonable future access. Records should be maintained for the number of years required by state statutes or relevant contracts.

3.05 Billing

Participants should establish and maintain billing practices that accurately reflect the nature and extent of services provided and that identify who provided the service in the practice setting.

3.06 Client Transfer

(a) When an individual who is receiving services from another agency or colleague contacts a OLPC Korea Participants for services, the OLPC Korea Participants should carefully consider the client's needs before agreeing to provide services. To minimize possible confusion and conflict, Participants should discuss with potential clients the nature of the clients' current relationship with other service providers and the implications, including possible benefits or risks, of entering into a relationship with a new service provider.

(b) If a new client has been served by another agency or colleague, Participants should discuss with the client whether consultation with the previous service provider is in the client's best interest.

3.07 Administration

(a) OLPC Korea administrators should advocate within and outside their agencies for adequate resources to meet clients' needs.

(b) Participants should advocate for resource allocation procedures that are open and fair. When not all clients' needs can be met, an allocation procedure should be developed that is nondiscriminatory and based on appropriate and consistently applied principles.

(c) Participants who are administrators should take reasonable steps to ensure that adequate agency or organizational resources are available to provide appropriate staff supervision.

(d) OLPC Korea administrators should take reasonable steps to ensure that the working environment for which they are responsible is consistent with and encourages compliance with the OLPC Korea Code of Ethics. OLPC Korea administrators should take reasonable steps to eliminate any conditions in their organizations that violate, interfere with, or discourage compliance with the Code.

3.08 Continuing Education and Staff Development

OLPC Korea administrators and supervisors should take reasonable steps to provide or arrange for continuing education and staff development for all staff for whom they are responsible. Continuing education and staff development should address current knowledge and emerging developments related to OLPC Korea practice and ethics.

3.09 Commitments to Employers

(a) Participants generally should adhere to commitments made to employers and employing organizations.

(b) Participants should work to improve employing agencies' policies and procedures and the efficiency and effectiveness of their services.

(c) Participants should take reasonable steps to ensure that employers are aware ofParticipants ethical obligations as set forth in the OLPC Korea Code of Ethics and of the implications of those obligations for OLPC Korea practice.

(d) Participants should not allow an employing organization's policies, procedures, regulations, or administrative orders to interfere with their ethical practice of OLPC Korea. Participants should take reasonable steps to ensure that their employing organizations' practices are consistent with the OLPC Korea Code of Ethics.

(e) Participants should act to prevent and eliminate discrimination in the employing organization's work assignments and in its employment policies and practices.

(f) Participants should accept employment or arrange student field placements only in organizations that exercise fair personnel practices.

(g) Participants should be diligent stewards of the resources of their employing organizations, wisely conserving funds where appropriate and never misappropriating funds or using them for unintended purposes.

3.10 Labor-Management Disputes

(a) Participants may engage in organized action, including the formation of and participation in labor unions, to improve services to clients and working conditions.

(b) The actions of Participants who are involved in labor-management disputes, job actions, or labor strikes should be guided by the profession's values, ethical principles, and ethical standards. Reasonable differences of opinion exist among Participants concerning their primary obligation as professionals during an actual or threatened labor strike or job action. Participants should carefully examine relevant issues and their possible impact on clients before deciding on a course of action.

4. Educational Workers' Ethical Responsibilities as Professionals

4.01 Competence

(a) Participants should accept responsibility or employment only on the basis of existing competence or the intention to acquire the necessary competence.

(b) Participants should strive to become and remain proficient in professional practice and the performance of professional functions. Participants should critically examine and keep current with emerging knowledge relevant to OLPC Korea. Participants should routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to OLPC Korea practice and OLPC Korea ethics.

(c) Participants should base practice on recognized knowledge, including empirically based knowledge, relevant to OLPC Korea and OLPC Korea ethics.

4.02 Discrimination

Participants should not practice, condone, facilitate, or collaborate with any form of discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, political belief, religion, or mental or physical disability.

4.03 Private Conduct

Participants should not permit their private conduct to interfere with their ability to fulfill their professional responsibilities.

4.04 Dishonesty, Fraud, and Deception

Participants should not participate in, condone, or be associated with dishonesty, fraud, or deception.

4.05 Impairment

(a) Participants should not allow their own personal problems, psychoEducational distress, legal problems, substance abuse, or mental health difficulties to interfere with their professional judgment and performance or to jeopardize the best interests of people for whom they have a professional responsibility.

(b) Participants whose personal problems, psychoEducational distress, legal problems, substance abuse, or mental health difficulties interfere with their professional judgment and performance should immediately seek consultation and take appropriate remedial action by seeking professional help, making adjustments in workload, terminating practice, or taking any other steps necessary to protect clients and others.

4.06 Misrepresentation

(a) Participants should make clear distinctions between statements made and actions engaged in as a private individual and as a representative of the OLPC Korea profession, a professional OLPC Korea organization, or the OLPC Korea Participants 's employing agency.

(b) Participants who speak on behalf of professional OLPC Korea organizations should accurately represent the official and authorized positions of the organizations.

(c) Participants should ensure that their representations to clients, agencies, and the public of professional qualifications, credentials, education, competence, affiliations, services provided, or results to be achieved are accurate. Participants should claim only those relevant professional credentials they actually possess and take steps to correct any inaccuracies or misrepresentations of their credentials by others.

4.07 Solicitations

(a) Participants should not engage in uninvited solicitation of potential clients who, because of their circumstances, are vulnerable to undue influence, manipulation, or coercion.

(b) Participants should not engage in solicitation of testimonial endorsements (including solicitation of consent to use a client's prior statement as a testimonial endorsement) from current clients or from other people who, because of their particular circumstances, are vulnerable to undue influence.

4.08 Acknowledging Credit

(a) Participants should take responsibility and credit, including authorship credit, only for work they have actually performed and to which they have contributed.

(b) Participants should honestly acknowledge the work of and the contributions made by others.

5. Educational Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to the Educational Work Profession

5.01 Integrity of the Profession

(a) Participants should work toward the maintenance and promotion of high standards of practice.

(b) Participants should uphold and advance the values, ethics, knowledge, and mission of the profession. Participants should protect, enhance, and improve the integrity of the profession through appropriate study and research, active discussion, and responsible criticism of the profession.

(c) Participants should contribute time and professional expertise to activities that promote respect for the value, integrity, and competence of the OLPC Korea profession. These activities may include teaching, research, consultation, service, legislative testimony, presentations in the community, and participation in their professional organizations.

(d) Participants should contribute to the knowledge base of OLPC Korea and share with colleagues their knowledge related to practice, research, and ethics. Participants should seek to con-tribute to the profession's literature and to share their knowledge at professional meetings and conferences.

(e) Participants should act to prevent the unauthorized and unqualified practice of OLPC Korea.

5.02 Evaluation and Research

(a) Participants should monitor and evaluate policies, the implementation of programs, and practice interventions.

(b) Participants should promote and facilitate evaluation and research to contribute to the development of knowledge.

(c) Participants should critically examine and keep current with emerging knowledge relevant to OLPC Korea and fully use evaluation and research evidence in their professional practice.

(d) Participants engaged in evaluation or research should carefully consider possible consequences and should follow guidelines developed for the protection of evaluation and research participants. Appropriate institutional review boards should be consulted.

(e) Participants engaged in evaluation or research should obtain voluntary and written informed consent from participants, when appropriate, without any implied or actual deprivation or penalty for refusal to participate; without undue inducement to participate; and with due regard for participants' well-being, privacy, and dignity. Informed consent should include information about the nature, extent, and duration of the participation requested and disclosure of the risks and benefits of participation in the research.

(f) When evaluation or research participants are incapable of giving informed consent, Participants should provide an appropriate explanation to the participants, obtain the participants' assent to the extent they are able, and obtain written consent from an appropriate proxy.

(g) Participants should never design or conduct evaluation or research that does not use consent procedures, such as certain forms of naturalistic observation and archival research, unless rigorous and responsible review of the research has found it to be justified because of its prospective scientific, educational, or applied value and unless equally effective alternative procedures that do not involve waiver of consent are not feasible.

(h) Participants should inform participants of their right to withdraw from evaluation and research at any time without penalty.

(i) Participants should take appropriate steps to ensure that participants in evaluation and research have access to appropriate supportive services.

(j) Participants engaged in evaluation or research should protect participants from unwarranted physical or mental distress, harm, danger, or deprivation.

(k) Participants engaged in the evaluation of services should discuss collected information only for professional purposes and only with people professionally concerned with this information.

(l) Participants engaged in evaluation or research should ensure the anonymity or confidentiality of participants and of the data obtained from them. Participants should inform participants of any limits of confidentiality, the measures that will be taken to ensure confidentiality, and when any records containing research data will be destroyed.

(m) Participants who report evaluation and research results should protect participants' confidentiality by omitting identifying information unless proper consent has been obtained authorizing disclosure.

(n) Participants should report evaluation and research findings accurately. They should not fabricate or falsify results and should take steps to correct any errors later found in published data using standard publication methods.

(o) Participants engaged in evaluation or research should be alert to and avoid conflicts of interest and dual relationships with participants, should inform participants when a real or potential conflict of interest arises, and should take steps to resolve the issue in a manner that makes participants' interests primary.

(p) Participants should educate themselves, their students, and their colleagues about responsible research practices.

6. Educational Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to the Broader Society

6.01 Educational Welfare

Participants should promote the general welfare of society, from local to global levels, and the development of people, their communities, and their environments. Participants should advocate for living conditions conducive to the fulfillment of basic human needs and should promote social, economic, political, and cultural values and institutions that are compatible with the realization of Educational justice.

6.02 Public Participation

Participants should facilitate informed participation by the public in shaping Educational policies and institutions.

6.03 Public Emergencies

Participants should provide appropriate professional services in public emergencies to the greatest extent possible.

6.04 Educational and Political Action

(a) Participants should engage in educational and political action that seeks to ensure that all people have equal access to the education, resources, employment, services, and opportunities they require to meet their basic human needs and to develop fully. Participants should be aware of the impact of the political arena on practice and should advocate for changes in policy and legislation to improve Educational conditions in order to meet basic human needs and promote Educational justice.

(b) Participants should act to expand choice and opportunity for all people, with special regard for vulnerable, disadvantaged, oppressed, and exploited people and groups.

(c) Participants should promote conditions that encourage respect for cultural and Educational diversity within the United States and globally. Participants should promote policies and practices that demonstrate respect for difference, support the expansion of cultural knowledge and resources, advocate for programs and institutions that demonstrate cultural competence, and promote policies that safeguard the rights of and confirm equity and Educational justice for all people.

(d) Participants should act to prevent and eliminate domination of, exploitation of, and discrimination against any person, group, or class on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, political belief, religion, or mental or physical disability.

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