School Server Specification/lang-ko
스쿨서버는 노트북들을 연결함으로써, 학습 기회를 상당히 확장합니다. 스쿨 서버는 다양한 사람들이 작성한 지식과 아이디어, 실험 그리고 예술에 접근할 수 있는 통로이며, 새로운 영역의 탐구, 새로운 아이디어와 실험의 개발, 그리고 대규모 프토젝트를 가능하게 합니다.
The XO laptops and the publishing tools that come with them make possible the development and free sharing of learning materials customized to every locale and culture. Projects shared across a small group help students to discover their own capacity for teaching and learning. Projects shared across a group of thousands have the power to create tools, artifacts, and resources with a diversity, specificity, and comprehensiveness that could not otherwise exist. If the laptops help fulfill one part of this vision, then the school server fulfills another. A network of laptops connected through a network of local and regional servers greatly expands the possibilities for learning. School servers provide access to libraries of knowledge, ideas, experiments, and art that others have created, giving students examples and references on which to build. As students study new areas, develop new ideas and experiments, and conceive of large-scale projects, the servers allow them to share these ideas with those around them. The school server is truly an integral part of the OLPC experience.
스쿨 서버가 지원하는 것
주요 역할은 어린이들의 데이터를 위한 출판 사이트이며, 데이터의 저장과 공유 공간이자 백업 시스템입니다.
The main role of the school server is as a publishing site for a child's data. OLPC wants children to be able to read and modify documents, create new documents, share documents with others, and explore the larger world. The school server supports this through a school library, which includes any documents from a child's journal that they have marked to be shared with other students. The school server supports a child's exploration, storing and protecting their data. With the extra storage provided by school servers, children can create, or copy and modify, as much as they want. By providing a continuous backup of the data on their laptops, servers help free children of concerns that they will lose their creations, even if they modify the laptop software itself.
스쿨 서버가 제공하는 것
클라이언트 서버 아키텍처에서 서버 역할을 수행하며, 인터넷 관문 기능을 제공합니다. 스쿨 서버는 개별 노트북의 제한된 데이터 저장과 처리 기능을 확장시켜 줍니다. 20여명을 지원하는 작은 서버와 150여명을 지원하는 큰 서버 두 종류가 있습니다.
The school server provides centralized services and support for the laptops. XO is designed to be durable and to run on limited power, therefore it has no moving parts and minimal external connectivity. This means flash memory instead of a hard drive, and no wired network connections. To download applications, store and backup large files, and to communicate with the Internet, the laptops in the mesh periodically connect to the school server.
The school server comes in two sizes, small and large, that support approximately 20 and 150 laptops respectively. The small server has one built-in mesh interface with an option to add another externally. The large server has more processing capacity and memory, and supports three wireless mesh networking interfaces using external WLAN modules. Multiple school servers will be used to support larger schools, still appearing to students and teachers as a single 'server'.
The relationship between laptop and school server is not the traditional one of client and server. School servers are effectively more capable, persistently available peers of the laptops. A number of services, such as storage or a telephone directory, are difficult or costly to provide in a distributed manner, and better relegated to the school server.
In addition to providing centralized services to XO laptops in its network, a school server also extends the functionality of the laptops by providing Internet access and caching for all laptops in the mesh, backup of individual laptops, and access to content from the school library.
XO 및 기타 컴퓨터들을 위한 인터넷 접속 관문일 뿐 아니라, 컨텐츠와 도메인 네임 모두에 대해 웹 캐싱 기능을 제공함으로써, 검색과 다운로드 속도를 대폭 향상시켜 줍니다.
When connected to the Internet, a school server provides this access to all XO laptops on its network. The laptops are connected to one another and to the Internet using the school's wireless mesh network. Individual machines don't need to be within direct wireless range of the school; other XO laptops may relay their connection to the school. To accommodate the number of students in larger schools, up to three physically overlapping mesh networks may be deployed per school. The school server provides the connection between these school mesh networks and the Internet using built-in wireless mesh network interfaces.
In addition to providing connectivity, the school server provides other networking functions that improve the Web experience for students in a school. One crucial function is local caching of pages and media accessed on the Web. Caching is the practice of storing a copy of any web content retrieved from the Internet on a local server - in this case, the school server. Image files, video, or audio can be slow to download over a limited Internet connection. When this content is already available on the school server, subsequent requests for the same content can be served very quickly. This both allows for much more rapid sharing of web pages and media by a class or group of users, and reduces traffic and bandwidth on the shared Internet connection.
Another function provided is caching of Internet domain name information. A typical web page requires translation of two to three domain names before displaying. In a manner similar to that used for content, these translated domain names are stored locally on the school server and reused for subsequent requests, resulting in faster browsing.
If a country chooses to filter a school's access to the Internet, the school server could perform the filtering operation. OLPC does not currently provide network filtering software, but will work with countries to meet their requirements.
The school server will also provide computers other than XO laptops at the school with connectivity. However, until the wireless mesh interface used by the laptops becomes available on other computers, this connectivity must be provided through an alternate network. This alternate network may be wired or wireless. If it is wireless, access points other than those provided with the school server will be needed. In order to avoid interference with a school's mesh networks, it is strongly recommended that any non-mesh wireless networks in the school use 802.11a technology.
각 학생들의 노트북에 담긴 자료들을 백업합니다. 또한 각 노트북이 800MB 이상의 자료를 저장하고자 할 때는 초과분을 저장하는 역할을 합니다.
The school server provides reliable data storage to the laptop and maintains a backup copy of a student's work. If their laptop is stolen, lost, or broken, their work can be recovered from the server. This backup facility also archives older work that is no longer stored locally on the XO.
In the event of accidental data destruction, all files recently created by a student can be restored from the school server using a process similar to that used for upgrading the laptop software. A redundant backup of student work is planned, from the school server to another server on the Internet; this process will vary from country to country.
As students use their laptops, it is expected that they will exceed its limited storage capacity (around 800 Megabytes of user space). At this point, older documents stored on the laptop will be removed to make room for new documents. Those documents will then be archived on the school server. Not encumbering the students with this multi-level storage model is a feature of the new Journal interface planned for the laptop. The Journal will automatically and transparently restore deleted documents to the laptop if a student wishes to access or edit them.
스쿨 서버는 미디어, 응용프로그램, 그리고 텍스트 저장을 위한 도서관입니다. 한 학급의 학생들이 구성하는 클래스 라이버러리, 2~15개의 클래스 라이버러리가 모인 스쿨 라이버러리를 구성합니다.
The school server houses a library of media, applications, and texts for children and teachers in the area. This school library is distributed across school servers and laptops in a school, and connected to a regional library located on the Internet. Books and media in the library may be accessed directly from the school server or downloaded onto the laptops. The library also houses software updates, repair manuals for the laptop, and new laptop activities.
The school library, at its core, is a local copy of a library assembled by the school's country and region, with help from OLPC. This set of documents is assembled on a country/region server, named a Regional Library. Each individual school server has a section of its library consisting of documents submitted by students and teachers using that server. This is called a Classroom Library. The collection of classroom libraries provided by the school servers at a particular school (there will typically be 2 to 15) is called a School Library. School library content comes from a variety of sources: teachers and students in the school, regional school organizations, the country and [inter]national libraries, school and regional servers in other countries, OLPC, and other free knowledge communities worldwide.
A number of library attributes (discovery and availability of materials, library contributions, collaborative learning) are discussed in following sections. It is important to note that the library is not a single service, but rather a set of services (wiki or wiki+, http cache, bittorrent client, codecs, etc...) that combine to provide library functionality.
XO 노트북은 자신 뿐 아니라, 이웃 XO들과 스쿨 및 지역 서버의 자료 인덱스를 보관함으로써, 빠른 검색과 추출을 가능하게 합니다. 스쿨 서버는 비슷하지만 훨씬 큰 인덱스를 보관합니다.
Any XO laptop maintains an index of materials on its own machine, as well as those seen on other nearby XOs and on school and regional servers, and can send requests for materials over the mesh or network. School servers maintain a similar but larger index, collating requests for materials and evaluating whether they can be fulfilled over the mesh. A pre-determined subset of the regional library is mirrored in the school library; the remainder of the documents are available over the Internet. Requests that cannot be fulfilled locally can be queued for request from regional servers or the Internet.
사용자가 학교 또는 지역 라이버러리로부터 문서를 요성하면, 해당 문서는 특정한 기간동안 캐시됩니다.
한 학교의 스쿨 라이버러리 컨텐트를 많은 수의 다른 학교들에게 공급하는 것은 제한된 대역폭으로 인해 힘든 과제입니다. 불행히도, 비영리적 컨텐츠 배포에 가장 적합한 아키텍처는 peer-to-peer (P2P) 방식이지만, 이 방식은 비대칭적 (DSL, satellite) 네트워크 연결을 이용하는 스쿨 서버에는 적합하지 않습니다. 한 가지 해결책은 잘 연결된 지역 또는 국가 수준의 '씨앗' 서버에 풍부한 저장 공간을 부착하여, 각 학교의 고유한 컨텐트를 위한 미러 사이트로 활용하는 것입니다. 이 서버는 스쿨 라이버러리의 백업 기능을 수행할 수 있습니다. P2P 엑세스 프로토콜은 이러한 씨앗 서버들의 부하를 줄이고, 지역 스쿨들을 좋은 업링크 접속으로 활용할 수 있습니다.
When a user requests a document from the school or regional library, the document is cached locally for a specified period of time. Caching of recently accessed documents via transparent HTTP proxy provides the best user experience, given limited connectivity. This also minimizes the load on the network connection to the regional library.
Supplying school library content from one school to a large number of other schools is also a challenge due to the limited bandwidth available for uplink from a typical school. Unfortunately, the architecture most useful for nonprofit content distribution is peer-to-peer (P2P), which is not well suited for school servers using highly asymmetrical (DSL, satellite) network connections. One solution is a well-connected regional or country-level 'seed' server with ample storage that can mirror unique content from each school. This server could also provide redundant backup of school libraries. P2P access protocols may be used to reduce the load on these seed servers, and make use of any regional schools with good uplink connectivity.
Note: A P2P protocol may be used to help scale the regional library, but it must be sensitive to the fact that many schools have very limited upstream bandwidth and can not participate as peers. While this protocol may serve well for mirroring content onto school servers, using it to provide on-demand access to library materials by students would require a client that is more complex than a browser.
도서관 공헌과 협동적 배움
스쿨 서버에 설치된 위키, 랩토, 그리고 무들 등의 협동 도구들은 교사와 어린이들의 협동 공간입니다. 스쿨 서버를 활용함으로서 일정 지역 내의 여러 학교들이 공동 프로젝트를 진행할 수 있습니다. 협동 프로젝트에는 단순히 읽기 쓰기나 소통 활동 뿐 아니라, 컴퓨터 프로그래밍 프로젝트 등도 포함됩니다.
Teachers and students should have tools to create and a place to store (and share) any resources they create. One such tool is a local 'wiki' available on each school server. Wikis are websites and software applications that allow users to freely add or edit content displayed on the site. They are powerful and effective tools for collaborative authoring. Other collaborative tools such as Rhaptos and Moodle have been developed specifically for school environments, and will be supported by the Library. The online extension of the Journal can provide students with the ability to blog and set up a shared window into their writing and work. In any case, software that allows students and teachers to engage in collaborative projects will be made available — either directly on the laptop or for download from the school server. By working through their school servers, several schools in a district may collaborate on the same project. For example, an essay project might involve forming an author group of students from different schools in a district, all working through collaborative tools. Over the course of the semester or the holidays, students could work together on an essay about a chosen topic, even cooperating with other regional groups to contribute to a larger project in a chosen knowledge area (similar to Wikipedia projects). The results can be graded by tutors and teachers. Mentors can help to locate information or to offer advice on how to collaborate. Collaborative projects hone not only the student's writing and communication skills, but their computer skills as well.
20~2000명의 학생들을 지원할 수 있는 자유 또는 오픈 소프트웨어 묶음입니다. 한대 혹은 여러 대가 하나의 학교를 지원할 수 있습니다.
The school server is a bundle of software that may be run on a variety of platforms, allowing it to support schools of 20 to 2000 students. OLPC will design and build two varieties of school server, small and large, supporting 20 and 150 students respectively. An XO laptop can even serve as a school server in a pinch, though this is not economical. Multiple servers may be used to support larger schools, appearing to the students and teachers as a single 'server'. OLPC will support efforts by individual countries to build their own school servers. All software running on the school server, like the laptop, will be free and open source.
작은 서버는 25명 정도를 지원합니다. XS는 150명 정도를 지원하며, XSX는 기존 부품들을 활용해 제작한 시제품입니다.
School server hardware is rather conventional, taking advantage of economies of scale in the personal computer industry to provide adequate performance at a minimum cost. There are three school server hardware platforms planned:
- A "small" server based on the XO laptop motherboard, designed to serve up to 25 laptops
- XS: A "large" school server, designed to serve up to 150 laptops
- XSX: An early prototype built using off-the-shelf PC components used for server software development and early trials
None of the school server platforms will support direct user interaction. They will not be equipped with a keyboard, graphics capabilities, or a display. If interaction is needed, such as for limited server configuration and management, it will be done via the network using a laptop.
작은 서버는 x86 466 MHz, 256 MB이며, 큰 서버는 1 GHz, 1GB 이상입니다.
To facilitate software development, the school server is being developed for the x86 family of processors. Other processor architectures may be supported in the future. The processor in the small server will be the same as that used in the laptop, running at 466 MHz. The large server will have more processing power, with processor speeds of at least 1 GHz. Like the laptop, the small server will have 256 Megabytes of memory. The large server will be provided with at least one Gigabyte of memory, to support the additional students.
작은 서버는 2.5", 40 ~ 60 기가이며, 큰 서버는 3.5" 320 ~ 400 기가입니다.
Each server is equipped with at least one hard disk drive, providing storage resources for the library and laptop backup. The size of this disk drive varies, and will increase over time. In the small server, a 2.5" laptop drive will provide 40 to 60 Gigabytes of storage, and in the larger servers a 3.5" drive will provide 320 to 400 Gigabytes of storage.
Additional storage may be added to a school server, both by installing a second, internal disk drive, and through external interfaces. The supported interfaces are: serial ATA (SATA), parallel ATA (IDE), and universal serial bus (USB) 2.0. Only USB will be supported externally.
The school server's operating system and critical services will be housed in solid state storage (flash ROM), allowing the server to continue providing a crucial subset of services even if the disk drive has failed. The unique (locally generated) content on the school server will be backed up remotely to facilitate recovery after disk failure.
외부 DSL이나 위성 모뎀을 이용한 인터넷 접속. 큰 서버에서는 학교 내 비-XO 컴퓨터에 대한 네트워크 연결 제공 뿐 아니라, 여러 개의 스쿨 서버들을 묶는 유선 인터페이스가 제공될 것입니다. 모든 스쿨 서버는 2~3개의 마블 메쉬 네트워킹 인터페이스를 자지며, 서버 외부에 연결된 3 미터 USB 케이블로 연결됩니다. 이 인터페이스는 서버와 XO 노트북을 무선 메쉬 네트워크로 연결하는 기능을 수행합니다.
Network interfaces provided on the school server will vary. One interface will be dedicated to connecting to the Internet, possibly through an external DSL or satellite modem. In the large server, a wired interface will be provided for connecting multiple school servers together, as well as providing network connectivity to non-XO computers that might exist in the school. All school servers will have two or three Marvell wireless mesh networking interfaces. These interfaces will be external to the server, connected (and powered) through three-meter USB cables. The interfaces are used to connect the server to the XO laptop wireless mesh network.
Fedora LinuxSQL, Java, Python, Perl, Apache 2, wikis, Moodle 등입니다. 가상 서버는 해당 서버의 보안과 신뢰성에 대한 보증없이도 지역 수준에서 개발된 소프트웨어 어플리케이션을 허용합니다.
Like the XO laptop, the software on the school server will be based on the Fedora distribution of Linux. Services and interpreters available for use by applications include SQL, Java, Python, and Perl. The web server will be Apache 2,
and collaborative tools will include several wikis and Moodle.
Virtual servers (see the Bitfrost security specification) will allow software applications developed at the local or regional level to execute on the school server without compromising either the security or reliability of the server. Virtual servers constrain applications in the amount of resources (processor, memory, disk, and network) that they may consume.
Trial1 Server Differences
In order to support trials of the XO laptop software while the software is still under development, a limited functionality release of both XO laptop and server software is being made. This software, while operational, is missing some key functionality (such as the Journal), has some "unexpected features", and may be difficult to configure.
From a user's perspective, the main difference in the school server functionality between this Trial-1 software and the full release is in the sharing and backup of documents they create.
In the full release of the XO laptop software, the Journal application will provide the mechanism for students to access documents that they have created, regardless of their location (on the laptop or moved to longer-term storage on the school server.) It will also provide a method for children to indicate which of their creations they wish to share with others. As the Journal application does not currently include this functionality, a temporary substitute has been provided.
Each student's XO laptop will automatically copy all documents they create on their laptop to a unique directory on the school server. The contents of this directory will be available through the school library (at /schoolserver/childs_nickname/), for sharing with other students.
Documents in the student's home directory on the XO will be deleted as the XO's local storage (flash memory) fills up. As this happens, students will still be able to access their older (deleted) documents. Using the browser application on their laptops, students can easily download or restore from the school server any of their older documents (or those of another student) for re-editing or inclusion in another document.