Educational activity guidelines/lang-ko

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  번역근원 Educational activity guidelines 원문  
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설명

액티비티, 레슨 플랜, 및 커리큘럼 개발에 관심있는 교육자 커뮤니티를 위한 지침입니다. 원문과 한글 번역문을 같이 게재하고 있으며, 한글 번역문에는 XO Korea의 자체 활동도 포함되어 있습니다. 자체 활동에 관한 내용은 이탤릭체로 표기합니다.

The Educational Activity Guidelines cover similar ground to the OLPC Human Interface Guidelines but are targeted to a different audience-- the community of educators interested in creating activities, lesson plans, and/or curricula for the XO laptop. These guidelines provide an in-depth view of various features of the XO and its user interface, and focus closely on aspects of the XO that pertain directly to the development of educational activities.

To Do

교육 액티비티 가이드라인

현재 작성 중인 문서이며, 용어도 정립 중인 상태입니다.

This document is a work in progress. In particular, some of terminology has not yet been finalized. In order to signal that we have not yet decided on the particular language of certain terms, we will place the terms in brackets like [this].

소개

독자

XO의 기능들 중에서 교육 액티비티 개발과 직접 관련된 측면에 집중합니다.

These guidelines cover similar ground to the OLPC Human Interface Guidelines but are targeted to a different audience-- the community of educators interested in creating activities, lesson plans, and/or curricula for the XO laptop. These guidelines provide an in-depth view of various features of the XO and its user interface, and focus closely on aspects of the XO that pertain directly to the development of educational activities.

읽는 법

귀하의 경력에 관계없이, 이 문서를 철저히 읽어야 합니다. 또한, 포함된 링크들도 참조하십시오.

Each of you brings a unique set of ideas and experiences to OLPC. Nonetheless, we strongly suggest that you read the this document in full. Many of the terms it contains will be familiar to you, but we urge you to review them anyway. Our approach to [computer-based learning] shifts away from some traditional models, and this document may introduce some unfamiliar ideas around such otherwise familiar terms.

While we suggest that you to read this document once from start to finish, extensive use of both internal and external hyperlinking also allows you to peruse its contents at will. Hopefully, this will make revisiting particular parts of the guidelines quick and easy, and will allow you to move naturally through the details that most pertain to you.

You can view the document in three ways-- in its entirety, by chapter, or by page. To get a broad picture or to print a hard copy, you can view the document in full. Alternately, you can use the integrated navigation to move through one chapter or page at a time.

In order to make the relationship between theory and practice more clear, we often include links to sample activities and to anecdotes from our pilot countries. Please take advantage of these examples as you develop your own.

피드백

귀하의 피드백이 요청됩니다. talk page를 이용해 주십시오.

This document remains in flux as the project moves forward. We value any feedback that you might have, and ask that you share your thoughts and suggestions via the talk pages. Discussions surround each tier of the document; if you have specific comments, please post them in the discussion for the corresponding page. For more general comments, feel free to use the talk pages at the chapter level or for the EAG as a whole. Links to the talk pages reside next to the section headers.

핵심 아이디어

액티비티

XO는 전통적 의미의 어플리케이션이 존재하지 않으며, 프로그램, 프로젝트, 레슨, 게임 등은 모두 액티비티로 나타납니다. 이들은 협업과 표현에 대한 공유된 초점과 수행, 저널링, 그리고 반복 속에서 서로 긴밀히 연결되어 있습니다. 우리는 어린이들이 액티비티를 그들의 학습 경험에 본질적인 한 부분으로 인식하게 되길 기대합니다.

On the laptop, there are no software applications in the traditional sense. Instead, the XO focuses children around the concept of the activity. Programs, projects, lessons, games-- these are all activities. On the XO, they are linked in their shared focus on collaboration and expression, and in their common methods of implementation, emphasizing journaling and iteration. Our hope is that children will come to recognize the activity as an intrinsic part of their learning experience.

저널

저널을 일상의 기록으로 바라보는 관점이 보편적입니다. 전형적으로, 저널은 특정한 사람이 특정한 날에 수행한 활동이나 사건들을 기록합니다. 우리는 이를 XO 상의 파일 조직 방식으로 선택하였습니다.

우리의 저널은 노트북 사용자가 한 일, 특히, 그 어린이가 참여한 책티비티를 기록한 역사입니다. 저널은 자연스럽게 연대 순으로 조직되며, 다양한 방식으로 태그, 검색 및 분류될 수 있습니다. 저널은 포트폴리오 또는 스크랩북으로 보여지며, 어린이가 저장한 파일, 사진 및 기타 디지털 오브젝트뿐 아니라, 그 어린이가 친구들과 나눈 일련의 상호 작용들을 기록합니다. 저널은 그 어린이가 의도적으로 만든 엔트리들과 액티비티 참여 과정 동안 노트북이 자동적으로 생성한 엔트리들을 결합합니다. 교육자들은 저널을 활동 속에 통합하는 방식을 생각해야만 합니다.

The concept of the journal as a written record of daily life is generally understood across cultures, albeit in various forms. Typically, a journal records the activities and events of a particular person on a particular day. We have chosen to adopt this metaphor-- the metaphor of the journal-- as our approach to organizing files on the XO.

Our Journal embodies the idea that the laptop should record a history of the things its user has done, or, more specifically, the activities the child has participated in. The Journal naturally lends itself to chronological organization (although it can be tagged, searched, and sorted by a variety of means). The Journal reads like a portfolio or scrapbook, recording not only the files, photos, and other digital objects that a child has saved, but also the child's interactions with the laptop and with his or her peers. The Journal combines entries intentionally created by the child with entries that are automatically created through participation in Activities. Educators should think about the ways in which they can incorporate the journal into their activities. need example.

소통과 협업

누구나 학생이자 교사가 될 수 있습니다. 협업은 XO 경험의 가장 핵심이며, 노트북 상에 표현되는 동료 학습자들의 모습은 자신은 물론 친구들의 학습에 대한 책임감을 고무합니다. 아이디어들의 교환을 통해 어린이들은 학습 과정에 대한 참여와 그들 자신의 사고력 향상을 도모하게 됩니다.

협업적인 학습 환경을 진작하기 위해, 노트북은 특정 범위 내의 다른 노트북들과 메쉬 네트워크를 형성하며, 모든 액티비티는 네트워크 액티비티가 될 수 있습니다. 우리는 메쉬 네트워크가 제공하는 기능을 충분히 활용하는 액티비티 개발을 기대합니다.

Everyone has the potential to be both a [student] and a teacher. In order to realize this potential, we have chosen to put collaboration at the core of the XO experience. The presence of other members of the learning community on each laptop will encourage children to take responsibility for their [classmates] learning as well as their own. This exchange of ideas both engages children in the learning process and stimulates their critical thinking skills.

In order to facilitate this collaborative learning environment, the laptops employ a mesh network that connects all laptops within a certain range. Because of the mesh network, every activity can be a networked activity. We aspire towards activities that take advantage of the opportunities for communication and collaboration that the mesh network allows. If your activity does not currently take advantage of the mesh network, please consider rethinking it in terms of this connected environment. For instance, need example. Whenever possible, activities should embrace this connectivity and emphasize the full range of collaborative processes that it makes possible.

창조적 표현

우리가 이미 알고 있는 지식을 통해 새로운 지식을 탐구한다는 전제 하에서, 우리의 접근 방식은 생각하기, 표현하기, 그리고 기술과 더불어 소통하는 데 집중합니다. 이 노트북은 "더불어 생각하는 도구"입니다. 우리는 어린이의 주요한 액티비티가 어떤 형태로든 창조적 표현에 있기를 희망합니다. 이를 위해, 액티비티는 그림그리기, 노래나 스트리, 게임 또는 프로그램 만들기 등 일련의 오브잭트 만들기에 집중해야 합니다.

우리들 대부분이 동의하듯, 학습을 위한 최선의 방법은 실천입니다. 우리는 "경험을 통한 학습"을 모든 종류의 창조에 적용합니다. 예를 들면, 우리는 음악 다운로드보다는 작곡하기, 만들어진 게임에 참여하는 것보다는 게임을 만드는 과정에 직접 참여하는 것을 강조합니다. 경험을 통한 학습 과정의 한 가지 필수적인 부분은 협동적인 비평과 지속적인 개선 과정입니다. "경험을 통한 학습" 모델에 기초한 교실 액티비티는 세 가지 국면을 통합해야만 합니다 -- 창조, 비평, 그리고 개선.

Starting from the premise that we want to make use of what people already know in order to make connections to new knowledge, our approach focuses on thinking, expressing, and communicating with technology. The laptop is a "thing to think with." We hope to make the primary activity of the children one of creative expression, in whatever form that may take. To that end, activities should focus on the creation of some type of object, be it a drawing, a song, a story, a game, or a program.

As most of us would agree, the best way of learning is by doing. We hope to apply the principle of "learning by doing" to all types of creation. For example, we emphasise composing music over downloading music, writing programs over running them. An essential part of the process of learning by doing is the process of collaborative critique, and the subsequent process of iteration that incorporating relevant revisions entails. A classroom activity based on the model of "learning by doing" should incorporate all three phases-- creation, critique, and revision. A sample activity might be: need example.

디자인 기초

청중을 알라

비경험자

OLPC 노트북의 예상되는 사용자는 이전에 커뮤터를 접해본 적이 없습니다.

The goal of OLPC is to provide children with new opportunities to explore, to experiment, and to express themselves. Many children in need of such opportunities have had little or no access to computing, and-- at least initially-- will be unfamiliar with the laptop and how to interact with it. This means, on the one hand, that educators should focus energy on making their activities intuitive, and on building metaphors that clarify and strengthen the connection between the laptops and the overall learning experience. On the other hand, this means that activities do not have to adhere to traditional models or behaviors, since the XO will be the first experience of computing for many of the children. This should free you to innovate.

어린이

노트북을 사용한 어린이들 중 많은 수가 5~6세 입니다.

Many of the children receiving laptops will be as young as five or six; others will be in their mid-teens. Those that receive laptops at a young age will continue to use them throughout their education. Therefore, it is important to develop activities for a range of ages, or that scale well across age levels.

국제

다양한 국적의 어린이들이 이 노트북을 쉽게 이용하기 위해서는, 문자보다는 직관적인 기호가 바람직합니다. 가령, "카메라"라는 문자 표기보다는 "사진기 그림"이 보다 직관적입니다.

The OLPC initiative, by its nature, requires international involvement and participation. Educators must keep in mind the broad range of cultures and languages that the laptops must transcend. In particular, activities should not (necessarily) depend on western modes of thinking. Rather, they should abstract ideas to concepts that are familiar to children worldwide. For instance, consider the camera button on the keyboard. Though one might be inclined to label this key with a small image of a camera and lens, the eye graphic speaks directly to our human capacity for vision, providing a cross-cultural icon that represents the computer's ability to capture what it sees. As an example of an activity, need example.

핵심 디자인 원칙

구성주의

우리는 어린이들이 경험을 통해 가장 잘 배울 수 있다고 믿습니다. 즉, 그들 스스로 새로운 지식은 구성하는 것입니다. XO의 목표, 그리고 액티비티들의 목표는 어린이들에게 새로운 지식을 구성할 수 있는 보다 많은 기회를 제공하는 것입니다.

We believe that children learn best by doing-- that is to say, when constructing new knowledge for themselves. The goal of the XO, and of the activities designed to accompany it, is to give children more opportunities to construct new knowledge, and in better ways than they could before.

Constructionist activities are often freeform and involve aspects of play. Activities designed for the XO should incorporate time for children to explore on their own and in groups of peers.

협업

어린이들은 자신들 뿐 아니라, 친구들의 학습 과정에도 개입하는 협업 환경을 가집니다. 액티비티들은 교실, 메쉬 네트워크, 그리고 인터넷을 통한 협업 기회들 위해 구성되어야 합니다.

Collaboration lies close to the core of the XO experience. The presence of other members of the learning community on each laptop will encourage children to take responsibility for their [classmates'] learning as well as their own. This exchange of ideas both engages children in the learning process and stimulates their critical thinking skills.

Activities should build in opportunities for collaboration-- in the classroom, over the mesh network, and on the internet.

Iteration and Constructive Critique

Children learn by doing, and by doing again.

Activities should...

현지화

XO 노트북은 다양한 교육적 수요를 충족하기 위한 다양한 환경 속에서 이용될 것입니다.

액티비티들은 가능한 현지에 적합한 형태여야 하며, 다양한 수준의 인터넷 접속 방식을 고려해야 합니다.

The XO laptop will be used in a range of environments to meet a range of educational needs.

Activities should anticipate and, if possible, provide suggestions for location-specific adaptations, as well as adaptations for varying levels of internet connectivity.

이동성

XO는 교실 뿐 아니라, 운동장, 집, 동네 등 다양한 장소에서 사용될 것입니다. 이러한 이동성을 고려한 액티비티 작성이 요구됩니다.

As with all portable computers, a general notion of mobility is intrinsic to the laptops. In the hands of children, however, the concept of mobility takes on an additional level of importance. We can expect that children will carry their computers to and from school, on hikes, onto playgrounds, and to any number of other locations where they can learn and experience the world.

The XO has been designed with ruggedness in mind. The important thing to consider is the effect such mobility can, and should have on the activities themselves.

투명성

OLPC는 표면 아래 탐구에 대한 모토를 노트북 그 자체로 확장하여, 키보드에는 "소스 보기" 키가 있어서, 어린이들은 그들이 일상적으로 이용하는 액티비티의 표면 아래 무엇이 있는 지를 볼 수 있습니다.

액티비티와 더불어 계획되는 모든 레슨 플랜은 어린이들이 이해할 수 있는 언어로 작성되어야 합니다.

OLPC hopes to extend its own ethos of exploring below the surface to the children who use its laptops. The XO keyboard includes a "view source" key, enabling children to explore below the surface of the Activities they use from day to day.

Along the same lines, any lesson plans that accompany an activity should be written in language that kids can understand, as they will be bundled with the actual activity.

HIG 핵심 디자인 원칙

Many of the key design principles for software development are relevant as well.

노트북 경험

메쉬 네트워킹

Each XO has "mesh" networking capabilities that allow it to connect to any laptop around it. This makes it easy to kids to collaborate on activities.

게시판

See Bulletin Boards.

소스 보기

See View Source.

저널

See The Journal.

글로벌 서치

See Global Search.

액티비티

기본 액티비티

현재 XO에 기본적으로 포함된 액티비티들은 다음과 같습니다.

읽기

읽기 액티비티는 모든 종류의 문서와 그림책을 볼 수 있는 직관적 인터페이스를 제공합니다. 핸드핼드 모드에서 이용 가능한 단순한 네비게이션 컨트롤 세트를 가지며, 매우 적은 전력만 소모합니다.

The Read activity provides an intuitive interface for viewing all kinds of text- and image-based book-type materials. It has a separate set of simple navigation controls used during hand-held mode, and has extremely low power consumption. For more information, see Read.

쓰기

쓰기 액티비티는 노트북의 기본적인 텍스트 편집 프로그램이며, 이야기, 시, 또는 에세이를 쉽게 작성할 수 있도록 구성되어 있습니다. 또한, 이미지와 표 작성, 기본적인 레이아웃 기능을 제공합니다.

The Write activity serves as the basic text editing application on the laptops. Its simple interface provides an easy starting point for children, presenting tools that make writing a story, poem or essay simple and straightforward. It also supports basic tools for inserting images, creating tables, and performing basic layout operations. For more information, see Write.

캡처

캡처는 사진과 비디오 촬영을 위한 것입니다.

Capture takes both photos and videos; it may need to change its name. For more information, see Capture.

그리기

그리기 액티비티는 개인 또는 그룹이 그림을 그릴 수 있는 환경입니다.

The Draw activity provides a canvas for an individual or a group of children to express themselves creatively through drawing. For more information, see Draw.

브라우저

XO 웹 브라우저입니다. Browse를 참조하세요.

블럭 파티

테트리스와 비슷한 게임입니다. Block Party를 참조하세요.

이토이

이토이는 미디어가 풍부한 저작 도구로, 단순하며, 강력한 스크립트 오브젝트 모델에 기초합니다. 이토이는 2D, 3D 그래픽, 이미지, 텍스트, 파티클, 프리젠테이션, 웹 페이지, 비디오, 사운드와 미디 등을 통합합니다. 이토이 이용자는 실시간으로 화면을 공유하며, 다양한 종류의 가르침, 협업, 그리고 놀이가 가능합니다. 이토이는 다양한 언어를 지원합니다.

Etoys is a media-rich authoring environment based on a simple, powerful scripted object model. Etoys incorporates 2D and 3D graphics, images, text, particles, presentations, web-pages, videos, sound and MIDI, and more. eToys users can share their desktops in real-time, enabling many forms of immersive mentoring, collaboration, and play. Etoys is multilingual, and has been successfully used in the USA, Europe, South America (Brazil, Colombia, Argentina), Asia (Japan, Korea, India, Nepal), and elsewhere. For more information, see Etoys.

탐탐

탐탐은 XO의 뮤직 및 사운드 관련 활동 슈트입니다.

미니탐탐은 키보드를 이용한 연주가 가능한 뮤직 액티비티 첫걸음입니다.

신디랩은 정교한 사운드 디자인 놀이를 즐길 수 있는 보다 고급 어플리케이션이며, Max/MSP 상에 구성된 물리학 연구실이자 사운드 신디사이저입니다.

탐탐 에디트는 강력한 뮤직 생성기로, 5개의 가상 "트랙"과 100여 개의 사운드를 지원하는 "파레트", 그리고 모든 종류의 뮤직 스타일을 허용하는 뮤직 구성 모델을 이용하여 곡을 만들고, 수정하며, 조직할 수 있는 도구입니다.

탐탐 잼은 협업 놀이 및 작곡 도구이며, 메쉬 네트워크에 기반하여 작동합니다.

TamTam is a suite of four music- and sound-related activities for the XO.

miniTamTam is an introductory music activity aimed at younger children. Children choose amongst dozens of different sounds that can be played polyphonically on the XO keyboard. There is a small "beatbox" to generate rhythms, and a simple sequencer to record short snippets of keyboard playing.

synthLab is a more advanced application for children who are ready to venture into sophisticated sound design. synthLab is a physics lab and sound synthesizer modeled on Max/MSP.

TamTam Edit features a powerful music generator, the ability to create, modify and organize notes on five virtual “tracks”, a "palette" of nearly one hundred sounds, and a music construction model that allows virtually limitless variations in all musical styles.

TamTam Jam consists of a collaborative playing and composing tool. It will be forthcoming as soon as the mesh network technology stabilizes.

For more information, see TamTam.

계산시

For more information, see Calculate.

뉴스 읽기

뉴스 읽기는 RSS 피드를 보기 위한 인터페이스를 제공합니다.

The News Reader activity provides an interface for viewing RSS feeds. For more information, see News Feeds.

추가적인 액티비티 번들

XO는 여러 개의 액티비티들이 사전에 설치된 상태로 배포됩니다. 이외에 다른 것들도 다운로드 및 설치될 수 있습니다.

The XO comes with several pre-installed Activities. Others can be downloaded and installed. OLPC is particularly interested in activities, lessons, and curricula that make use of these applications.

초대하기

See Invitations.

추가적 기능들

멀티유즈 트랙패드

See Trackpad.

마이크로폰과 스피커

See Microphone and Speakers.

카메라

XO는 내장형 카메라가 있으므로, 쉽게 사진을 찍거나 비디오를 촬영할 수 있을 뿐 아니라, 화상 회의도 가능합니다.

Each XO comes with a built-in camera, so taking pictures and making videos are easy to do. The camera can also be used for videoconferencing.

See Camera.

핸드핼드 모드

핸드핼드 모드를 이용하여 교실 밖에서도 XO를 자유롭게 활용할 수 있습니다. 태블릿 모드에서는 밝은 햇빛아래서도 선명한 읽기가 가능한 고해상도 흑백 스크린을 지원합니다.

The XO has a "hand-held" mode, so that kids can take their laptops out of the classroom and into the real world. In tablet mode, the screen outputs high-resolution black and white graphics that are visible in the brightest of sunlight.

See Hand-held Mode.

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