Input methods/lang-ko

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  번역근원 Input methods 원문  
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  • 참고: 기술적인 자료의 번역을 위해 여러분의 도움을 기대합니다. www.laptop.org 사이트와 이 사이트의 메인 페이지들은 대부분 번역되었으나, 나머지는 한글 요약만을 제공하고 있습니다. 어느 페이지든 추가 번역이 필요하면, XO Korea의 번역 섹션에 메시지를 남겨 주시기 바라며, 모자라는 번역 부분을 채워주실 손길을 기다리고 있습니다.
  • Note: Some core pages have been fully translated, and others are provided with summaries. If you need more translation, please leave a message onto the discussion page of this, or that of XO Korea.


어떤 언어글쓰기 시스템든 텍스트를 입력하기 위해서는 그것들을 나타낼 유니코드 폰트, 표시하는 방법을 알고 있는 렌더링 엔진, 그리고 원하는 글자를 입력하기 위한 키보드 레이아웃 또는 Input Method Editor (IME) 이 필요합니다. 대부분의 알파벳과 음절 문자들은 일반적인 타이핑 키와 메타 (일반적으로 Alt)와 복합 키를 이용하여, 하나의 키마다 하나의 유니코드 문자를 만들어 내는 매우 단순한 키보드를 이용하여 입력할 수 있습니다. 메뉴와 윈도우 키를 포함하여, 여러 기들이 복합 키로 설정될 수 있습니다. 라틴 키보드에서, 복합-a-는 á, 복합-c-는 ç를, 등등이 됩니다. 미리 만들어진 폼으로 유니코드에 포함된 모든 액센트 문자들이 여기에 속합니다. 이것은 Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1)와 같이 널리 쓰이는 유니코드 이전 문자 세트에 모두 적용되는데, 불어, 독일어, 스페인어, 이탈리아어, 스칸디나비아 언어들, 그리고 오직 Latin-1의 액센트 문자만을 사용하는 일부 다른 언어들을 포괄합니다.

* 역주: 아래 본문 내용은 수정이 필요할 듯. 한국어가 중국어나 일본어와 같은 키보드 입력 구조를 가진다는 것은 다소 넌센스....

다양한 발음이 이러한 유형의 단순한 키보드에서는 연속하여 입력됩니다.그러나, 보다 정교한 입력 시스템은 하나 이상의 유니코드 문자를 각 키 조합을 위해 입력 버퍼 속에 집어 넣습니다. Yoruba가 그러한 예인데, Unicode로 미리 만들어질 수 없는 모음 (아래 위로 액센트와 점이 있는)을 가지기 때문입니다.

대부분의 정교한 IME들은 중국어, 일본어, 한국어 그리고 베트남 고어인 Chu Nomh을 위한 CJKV 입력을 위한 것입니다. 이들 언어들은 최소 수천 개의 문자를 필요로 하며, 훨씬 광범위한 CJKV 에 대한 요구가 있는데, 많은 수의 홍콩 문자와 최근에 만들어지는 단어, 또는 학술적으로 중요한 수만 개의 고대 문자들을 포함합니다.


CJKV 문자를 입력하는 수백 가지 방법이 지난 수십년 간에 걸쳐 개발되었는데, 그 중에서 가장 중요한 것 (효율성 또는 학습 용이성, 또는 둘다)은 중국어, 일본어 또는 한국어를 위한 발음 변환 시스템과 원칙적으로는 언어 독립적이지만, 실제로는 특정국가에 종속된 형태-기반 시스템입니다.

See also countries, languages, writing systems, fonts, locales, and keyboard layouts.

Contents

Tools for keyboard layouts, to come. loadkeys utility to load keyboard layouts.

Tools for IMEs, to come.

입력 방법

발음 변환

The concept of phonetic conversion is that any CJKV language typed in any alphabet or other sound-based writing system can be converted using a combination of dictionary lookup together with grammatical and semantic analysis. The first successful phonetic conversion word processor was the Xerox 8010 J-Star, an outgrowth of the Xerox Alto computer and Smalltalk programming language in 1981. Thanks go to Alan Kay for the Alto and Smalltalk ideas, and to Joseph Becker for the language handling software. Phonetic conversion to CJKV characters exists for the following combinations, in many variations.

  • Romazi (Latin alphabet) or Zhuyin to either Traditional or Simplified Chinese hanzi 漢字
  • Romaja 로마자 (Latin alphabet) or Hangeul 한글 Korean alphabet to hanja 漢字
  • Romaji ローマ字 (Latin alphabet) or hiragana ひらがな syllabary to Japanese kanji 漢字

Phonetic conversion systems depend on a native alphabetic or syllabic representation, or on one or more Romanizations of the target language.

  • Chinese: Pinyin 拼音, Gwoyeu Romatzyh 國語羅馬字, Wade-Giles, and Yale are a few of hundreds
  • Japanese: Hepburn, Kunrei-shiki, Nippon-shiki, Yale
  • Korean: McCune-Reischauer (MR), Revised Romanization of Korean (RR), Yale

(Yes, the Yale Department of Linguistics was busy on the issue for decades.)

Dasher - 제스처 텍스트만

Dasher is an information-efficient text-entry interface, driven by natural continuous pointing gestures. It is a competitive text-entry system wherever a full-size keyboard cannot be used - for example, when operating a computer one-handed, by joystick, touchscreen, trackball, or mouse—particularly interesting when the OLPC is in e-book mode. It can be used for many languages (>60), and is extensible through XML files. You can try it in your browser (w/Java).

형태 기반

It has been evident to everyone who has studied Chinese characters, including ancient Chinese scholars, that one can analyze most Chinese characters into a variety of smaller parts, many of which are characters themselves, and further, into a number of specific brush strokes (or the corresponding elements for characters cast in bronze, carved into seals, scratched into oracle bones, and so on). Many attempts were made over thousands of years to analyze the character shapes for various reasons, among them dictionary making. The best known is the system of 214 radicals set forth in the 1615 CE Zihui (字彙 "Character Glossary"), edited by Mei Yingzuo (梅膺祚) during the Ming Dynasty, and made a de facto standard by the 1716 CE Kangxi Zidian (康熙字典 "Kangxi Dictionary"), compiled under the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.

In the computer age, numerous analyses of character shapes were made as the basis for methods for typing Chinese, including those described below, which remain in widespread use, and others. As with the radicals, shapes are generally somewhat variable. In shape-based IMEs, several shapes may be grouped together and assigned a single key. Different shape-based IMEs are usually used for Traditional and Simplified characters.

언어별 방법

전통 중국어

Zhuyin 변환

Zhuyin 注音, or Bopomofo ㄅㄆㄇㄈ, is a Chinese alphabet used for teaching children as well as for typing Chinese input. It has multiple keyboard layouts. Zhuyin is one of the standard conversion methods for Chinese, appearing on almost all computers and some cell phones.

[Wikipedia: Zhuyin]

[Unicode: Bopomofo] code table (PDF)

Phonetic conversion method

Pinyin 변환

Phonetic conversion method, using the standard Romanization of Chinese, converted to Simplified Chinese characters.

Example: zhongguo results in 中国

간지

` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 [ ] 手 田 水 口 廿 卜 山 戈 人 心 [ ] 、 日 尸 木 火 土 竹 十 大 中 ; ‘ z 難 金 女 月 弓 一 , 。 /

Shape-based. The Cangjie keyboard layout has 24 simple Chinese characters on it, plus a key for "difficult" 難 characters. All of the common brush strokes and many common combinations are mapped to the 24 base characters. Characters are analyzed into these combinations, and then 1 to 5 of them are selected for typing, according to a moderately complex set of rules.

Example: 日月 results in 明.

Four Corners

Shape-based. The corners of a character are encoded, and a code for the whole character created from them.

etc.

중국어 간체

Pinyin

Wubi

etc.

일본어

Romaji (ASCII) 변환

가나 변환

etc.

한국어

Romaja (ASCII) 변환

한글 변환

etc.

IME 엔진 설명

SCIM 스마트 공용 입력 방법 플랫폼

The SCIM platform supports the following IMEs on Linux and other forms of Unix.

영어/European

Adds combining characters to any ASCII keyboard layout, including Dvorak.

Ethiopic

Including Amharic, Tigrigna-Eritrean, Tigrigna-Ethiopian

Amharic and other languages of Ethiopia are written in a syllabary with too many symbols to fit on a simple keyboard. However, it can be typed in an IME. One types a base syllable, then a vowel, to get the syllable with the consonant from the base syllable plus the specified vowel.

This is the basic keyboard layout.

` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 [ ] ቅ ው እ ር ት ይ ኡ ኢ ኦ ፕ [ ] \ አ ስ ድ ፍ ግ ህ ጅ ክ ል ፤ ዝ ሽ ች ቭ ብ ን ም ፣ . /

The syllable and vowel letters combine as in the following example.

For Type ታ ት አ ቶ ት ኦ ተ ት እ ቱ ት ኡ ቲ ት ኢ

Cyrillic

This is called a phonetic layout, where the letter on most keys is the closest Cyrillic letter in sound to the Latin letter on the same key in QWERTY. But it is not simply a keyboard layout. Letters not on the keyboard can be typed as combinations. For example, the sequence 'ыо' results in 'ё', and similarly 'ыу' results in 'ю'.

` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 [ ] я в е р т ы у и о п [ ] \ а с д ф г х й к л ; з х ц в б н м , .

Inuktitut

Again, a base keyboard layout with combining rules.

` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 - = ᖅ w e ᕐ ᑦ ᔾ ᐅ ᐃ ᐅ ᑉ [ ] \ ᐊ ᔅ d ᕝ ᒡ ᔅ ᔾ ᒃ ᓪ ; z x ᒡ ᕝ b ᓐ ᒻ , . /

Example: ᔾ ᐅ results in ᔪ.

IPA

Keyboard layout with combining rules.

` 1 2 ʒ 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 - = q w e r t y u i o p [ ] \ a s d f g h j k l ; ' z x c v b n m , . /

Note that the character 'ʒ' on the 3 key is not a 3, but U+0292 LATIN SMALL LETTER EZH.

Example: 'sh' results in 'ʃ'.

Vietnamese

` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 - = q w e r t y u i o p [ ] a s d f g h j k l ; z x c v b n m , . /

Example: 'dd' results in 'đ'

Japanese

  • Hiragana (romaji-hiragana conversion)

Typing a consonant key produces the syllable with that consonant plus a. Typing a consonant followed by a different vowel in most cases produces the syllable with the consant-vowel combination indicated. Some syllables are spelled in other ways, in an attempt to simplify things for the English-speaking user.

` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 [ ] q わ え ら た や う い お ぱ [ ] 、 あ さ だ ふ が は じ か l ; ' ざ x ち v ば ん ん , 。 /

Examples: kkikukeko produces かきくけこ; tctsteto produces たちつてと

  • Katakana (romaji-katakana conversion)

` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ー= q ワ エ ラ タ ヤ ウ イ オ パ [ ] 、 ア サ ダ フ ガ ハ ジ カ l ; ' ザ x チ v バ ン ン , 。 /

Example: kkikukeko produces カキクケコ; tctsteto produces タチツテト

  • Nippon (romaji-kanji conversion)

Type a syllable in romaji. A menu appears, offering characters to be chosen by number. It is essential to know the readings expected by the software, such as naka1kawa1 to get the name read Nakagawa 中川. This IME does not recognizes the modifications to readings that occur when characters are combined.

Example: ni1hon1 produces 日本.

Korean

  • Hangul
  • Hangul Romaja
  • Hanja

Simplified Chinese

  • Erbi
  • Erbi-QS
  • Wubi
  • Ziranma

Traditional Chinese

  • Wu
  • Array30
  • CNS11643
  • Cangjie
  • Cangjie 3
  • Cangjie 5
  • Canton HK
  • Cantonese Pinyin
  • Dayi3
  • EasyBig
  • Jyutping
  • Quick
  • Simplex
  • Stroke 5
  • ZhuYin
  • ZhuYin Big

Installation

On Debian Linux, use apt-get, aptitude, or Synaptic to install the scim package along with im-switch (required for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) and scim-gtk2-immodule. You can also install skim, the KDE graphical frontend, which puts an icon on the toolbar. On systems using Red Hat packages, install the corresponding software. Follow the configuration instructions to set the necessary environment variables. Then run

scim -d

from the command line. Open a supported application such as gedit. Right-click in the window to get the main IME menu. Select "SCIM Input Method" to enable Chinese, Korean, and Japanese,

xcin

Used with bitmap fonts and the rxvt Chinese terminal program.

IIIMF

Internet/Intranet Input Method Framework of OpenI18n.org is a new Unicode-based input method framework.

Chinput

Chinese XIM Input Server

Help

Tests of IMEs, need help from expert users.

External links

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