OLPC software task list/lang-ko
성공적인 OLPC 배포와 이니셔티브를 위한 일반적 프레임워크로 소프트웨어 워크 그룹들을 구성할 필요가 있습니다. 다양한 국적의 워크그룹 대표들이 정기적으로 만나 업무를 조율합니다. 그 목적은;
- OLPC를 활용한 고품질의 교육적 사례
- 사람들과 아이디어의 개발을 위한 조건
- 좋은 아이디어와 툴들을 확산시킬 메커니즘
OLPC will need to establish software work groups as general framework to enable the successful deployment and use of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) initiative. Most of these work groups will have national counterparts that may vary in how they choose to prepare for and manage the program in order to take advantage of local strengths, skills, resources, culture, and strategic directions.
There is some natural overlap of workgroup missions so naturally they will have to remain coordinated. A coordinating body that includes representatives from each workgroup should meet on a regular basis. OLPC is unique. Adoption of universal access to connected computers for education presents opportunities previously virtually impossible. Serious thinking and creativity can bring widespread social benefits. By being open to innovative ways of thinking combined with an understanding of local conditions, the workgroups can contribute mightily to OLPC success.
The critical success factors include creating:
- High quality educational examples of OLPC use
- Conditions for the development of people and ideas
- Mechanisms for the spread of good ideas and tools
Fostering the development of the early adopters and helping their ideas and examples to spread are key. As OLPC is a multi-national effort, each nation does not have to invent everything for itself. They can and should learn from each other. The technology itself facilitates the spread of the ideas and examples. There also will be the workgroup meeting at MIT in March, 2006 to help facilitate this process.
주요한 결정은 오픈소스 소프트웨어 상의 OLPC에 기초합니다. 소프트웨어 워크그룹의 임무는 따라야 할 원칙의 결정, 고품질 교육 및 범용 소프트웨어들을 어린이들과 그 가정에 광범위하게 배포할 수 있는 메커니즘의 수립이며, 테스크포스는 또한 지역화를 위해 필요한 계획을 분석 및 수립할 필요가 있습니다. 바퀴를 재발명하기보다, 이 워크 그룹은 다른 지역에서 개발된 고품질의 소프트웨어를 전략적으로 관찰하고 채택할 수 있어야 하며, 원하는 수준 (언어, 지역 컨텐트, 또는 지역 문화)에 맞게 지역화하고, 갭을 메울 새로운 소프트웨어를 개발함으로써, 중복 수고를 줄일 수 있습니다. 더우기, 소프트웨어 워크그룹은 새로운 소프트웨어, 툴, 그리고 디지털 미디어 컨텐트를 개발할 수 있는 환경을 지역 개발자들에게 제공함으로써, 산업 발전을 향한 전략적 관점을 취할 수도 있습니다. 학습을 진정으로 촉진하고, 최고의 디지털 및 컴퓨터 환경 (즉, 표현적이고, 동적이며, 다중 모드, 협동적, 시작적)을 활용하는 소프트웨어. 이 워크 그룹은 서로 간에 광범위하게 협동하여야 하는데, 소프트웨어가 모든 그룹의 성공을 향한 핵심 구성요소이기 때문입니다. 소프트웨어 그룹은 또한 새로이 등장하는 상호 연동된 컴퓨터 인프라스트럭처를 미래의 사회적 목표에 어떻게 활용할지를 연구할 수 있습니다.
A computer is only as useful as the software that runs on it. The OLPC will come with certain general purpose software available (e.g. browser, word processing, utilities, etc.). There also will be several types of software for learning that take specific advantage of computers (e.g. LOGO, Squeak, Scratch, etc.). A major decision was to base the OLPC on open source software. This provides countries with the freedom to decide for themselves what to place on the machines.
The task of the software workgroups is to determine what principles to follow and what mechanisms to put in place to provide widespread access to high quality educational and general software for children and their families. The taskforce also needs to analyze and make plans for any needed localization. Rather than re-invent the wheel, the workgroups can take a strategic view and adopt high quality software developed elsewhere, localize at the level required (whether for language, local content, or local culture), and develop new software to fill in the gaps. In this way overall costs can be diminished.
Moreover, the software workgroups can take a strategic view towards industrial development by fostering a positive climate for local developers to create new software, tools, and content for digital media. Software that truly facilitates learning and that utilizes the best of digital, computational environments (that is, that they are expressive, dynamic, multi-modal, collaborative, visual). This workgroup will need to coordinate extensively with all the other workgroups as the software is a key component towards the success of every group. The software group also can study how to best use the emerging connected computational infrastructure to further other social goals.
OLPC 소프트웨어 과제 리스트
OLPC가 OS 디자인 단계를 벗어나, 어플리케이션과 지역화로 신속히 나아갈수록, 모두에게 더욱 유익합니다.
At its most basic, we need: an operating system; a web browser; an eBook reader; and some other base-level utilties, such as audio recording and playback, video playback, word processing, tools for drawing, etc.
With 1GB of flash memory, and 256 MB of RAM, the $100 laptop will not be tied to a specific set of software or content. It will have the flexibility to change with the requirements of the student. Individuals will inevitably find individualized uses; certainly local, regional, and national requirements will drive much of the base configuration.
Indeed, the faster OLPC moves from designing the OS to adding applications and localization, the better for everyone.
OLPC 환타지 소프트웨어 팀
기본 디바이스 지원, 파워 관리, 메모리와 OOM 관리, 플래시 파일 시스템, Athleros 드라이버, X EXA 디바이스 드라이버, 분산 파일시스템 (가령, Coda)등을 담당합니다.
The responsibilities include base device support, power management, memory and OOM management, flash file system, Athleros driver, X EXA device driver, distributed file system (e.g. Coda). Who: Jim Gettys, David Woodhouse (JFFSn), Marcello Tosatti (general help), Mauricio Lin & Sampsa Fabritius (Nokia, OOM), X driver (AMD & Tungsten Graphics (?)), Satya (?) & people to be hired.
기본 시스템 환경
파생적인 배포판, 기본 라이버러리, "표준" 어플리케이션 및 데스크탑 환경 (윈도우 관리, 어플리케이션 시동기, 파일 브라우저, 시스템 구성). 국제화와 지역화 기술, 여기에 속하는 모든 접근성 기술. 메쉬 네트워킹 등. 제안: 기본 시스템은 모든 노트북에 동일하고, 자주 바뀌지 말아야 합니다. 즉, OLPC API입니다. 따라서, 브라질 학생이 중국 프로그램을 활용하는 OLPC 소프트웨어 활용에 문제가 없어야 합니다. 또한, 개발자들은 그들의 소프트웨어들을 라이버리 중복을 피하고, 어플리케이션 사이즈와 메모리 사용을 줄이도록, 표준 OLPC 라이버러리에 맞도록 조정하여야 합니다.
The responsibilities include derivative distribution repackaging, base libraries, "standard" out of the box applications and desktop environment (e..g. window management, application launcher, file browser, system configuration). Internationalization and localization technology, accessibility technology all belong here. Mesh networking power aware networking belongs here.
Who: Jim Gettys, Mako Hill, Dan Williams, David Zeuthen, Marco Gritti, Phil Blundel (?), Owen Taylor, Mathew Allum(?)
Suggestion: The Base System should be the same for all laptops and do not change very often. This would be the OLPC API. The benefit is that students can just download and use an OLPC software (doesn't matter if it's a brazilian student getting a chinese program). Also, developers can adjust their software to use the standard OLPC libraries avoiding library duplication, reducing application size and memory usage.
백업, 소프트웨어 배포, email, 웹서비스, VOIP, IM, 프린팅 등 소프트웨어 서비스를 담당합니다. 추가적으로, 학교 자체를 위한 서비스들 역시 이 그룹에 속합니다 (가령, 관리 소프트웨어). 규제 기관, 스펙트럼 가용성, "보편적 접근" 펀드의 활용, 운반 수단 등과 같은 비 소프트웨어적인 이슈도 이 그룹이 담당합니다.
The responsibilities include software services such as backup, software distribution, email, web services, VOIP, IM, printing, etc. Additionally, services for schools themselves belong in this group (e.g. administrative software). There are also non-software-related issues this team will confront, such as regarding regulatory regimes, spectrum availability, use of "universal access" funds, carrier participation, etc. Who: Michail Bletsas, Dave Reed, Demi Getschko
지역화 및 보편적 접근
The responsibilities include fonts that will provide an acceptable coverage for the required languages, translation of the software (user-interface and help files), writing support (keyboard layouts and input methods), creation of locales, etc. The system must fully use Unicode (UTF-8) instead of legacy 8-bit encodings.
이 팀은 이북, 북 저작 기술, 교사 교육, 기존 컨텐트 이식, 새로운 컨텐트 개발을 위한 프레임워크, 스쿨 서버 기술, 관리를 위한 "어린이 봉사대" 조직 등을 다룹니다. 주요한 점은 교육적 오락과 재미있는 배움 간의 차이입니다. 우리는 에듀테인먼트가 아니라 재밌는 배움을 추구합니다. 또한, 보상에 의한 처벌을 원하지 않습니다. 구성주의자 교육철학에 대한 일련의 이해가 개발자들에게 도움이 될 것입니다.
The responsibilities of this group include selecting suitable educational software, (with an understanding of memory consumption of the software). Ebook and book authoring technology belongs here. Other issues include teacher preparation, migration of exisiting content, a framework for new content development, school-server technologies, a "Kids Corps" for maintenance.
However, let's keep in mind that there is a difference between Edutainment and and Playful Learning. And we want Playful Learning instead of Edutainment. Also, we don't want kids to be punished by rewards. Some understanding of constructionist educational philosophy will be useful for developers.
OLPC의 특성을 살리기 위해, 특정 지역 전체에 일괄 보급하는 것이 원칙이므로, 좋은 컴퓨터 교육 관행과 사회적 수요가 높은 지역을 골라 시범적으로 배포하는 것을 고려할 수 있습니다. 잘 작동해 온 한 가지 전술은 지역 공동체를 초정하여, 선택되기 위해 그들이 공헌할 수 있는 것이 무엇인지 물어보는 것입니다. 펀드를 암시하지 않습니다; 그 보다는 부모에 의한 지원, 또는 교사들에게 컴퓨터를 성공적으로 이용하는 방법을 익힐 시간 제공, 또는 컴퓨터에 의해 가능한 교육 혁신 계획 등입니다.
Unless the country will immediately supply laptops for every child, decisions must be made about how to roll out the computers until the goal of one laptop per child is reached. The immersive nature of one-to-one computing is essential to making dramatic improvement in education. Therefore, we strongly recommend distributing computers on a one-to-one basis throughout an entire region, and not to sprinkle them in low density throughout the country. Choosing the order of districts for receiving the laptops is not an easy decision. It is our experience that the greatest gains can be made when the initial sites set strong exemplars for use. This is possible through selection for high likelihood of good educational practice with computers as well as by addressing critical social needs. One tactic that has worked well is to invite local communities to propose what they will contribute in order to be chosen. This does not imply funds; rather it often is support by parents, or the offer to give teachers time and support to learn how to successfully use the computers, or plans for innovation in education enabled by the computers.
광범위한 컴퓨터 보급의 이점을 살린 새로운 컨텐트 개발을 시작할 것을 강력히 권고합니다. 기존 프로그램들을 재설치하기 보다, 새로운 컨텐트와 접근법이 가능합니다. 우리의 경험에 의하면, 요지부동한 학습 환경 상의 제약이 새로운 방법론적 접근뿐 아니라, 그 기술에 의해 가능한 새로운 컨텐트에 의해서도 극복될 수 있습니다.
It is strongly advisable to begin to develop new content that takes advantage of the widespread presence of computers. Rather than just re-hosting existing content on the computers, new content and new approaches are possible. It has been our experience that certain limitations in the learning environment that seemed intractable can be ameliorated not just through new methodological approaches, but also through new content enabled by the technology.
중간상을 거치지 않고, 직접 저자와 접촉하여 일시불로 저작권을 구매하여 자유 라이센스 (CC-ShareAlike or GNU FDL)로 배포할 필요가 있습니다.
The OLPC community, and the country educational bureacracies, will need to "cut out the middleman" in procuring
textbooks for OLPC. That is, we or they should contract directly with textbook authors to write textbooks for a one-time fee, publishing the textbooks under a free (CC-ShareAlike or GNU FDL) license. Older, existing textbooks will not be usable, even if scanned in, unless their copyrights can be purchased. The author and editor can be paid what they would usually be paid by an educational publisher.
- We should ask publishers for CC-style licenses (no-cost, allowing adaptation and republishing into all currently unprofitable languages) for their textbooks and all other educational materials, to be translated into the languages of the developing countries. Or all languages, with distribution only in target countries.--Mokurai 22:07, 17 October 2006 (EDT)
While new interactive teaching programs should also be developed in parallel, the process of buying static textbooks will be the fastest path to books that are usable on the OLPC by the very first kids to get them. This process should start immediately. There's no need to wait for hardware. The bulk of the work can be delivered in Unicode plain text. Markup (e.g. OpenDocument or HTML) will only be needed to incorporate graphics -- and that markup can be inserted later, once the book-viewer software's specs have settled.
- There are considerable advantages to using XML markup from the start. With a suitable DTD template, writers can edit visually in Quanta Plus (Free Software). Then we can use standard tools such as Cascading Style Sheets to reformat the material as books, HTML, PDF, or other formats.--Mokurai 22:07, 17 October 2006 (EDT)
It will take qualified authors and editors a year to write a good textbook, so it's time to get started today. Most such textbooks can be translated into a variety of languages, speeding up the process for subsequent languages (though these will still require final editing by an expert in the subject and in the language). But we don't even know yet what grade the first kids will be attending (high school? elementary?), or what subjects will be included in their course of study. As soon as these things are pinned down (or guessed well), the process of finding qualified and available authors and editors can begin.
- The process can begin for all grades immediately. We know that first graders will get Laptops within a few years in one country or another, barely enough time to get a reasonable set of textbooks together. We know that all subjects will be needed. Some Free textbooks are already available--Mokurai 22:07, 17 October 2006 (EDT)
If we don't watch out, textbooks will end up on the critical path, slowing down hardware distribution. (And if hardware isn't on the critical path, then we should wait for better hardware before producing a million of these!)
I am worried at the fact that in Mexico, the content of the "Free Grammar Textbooks", for example is not available over Internet because of "Copyright reasons". Also an recent development in Educational Material called the "ENCICLOMEDIA" is not available for Private Schools, for the "same reason"; if the greedy friends of governments that develop Educational Material, behave like that and try to extract money from the PUBLIC FUNDED developed material, I think is unfair... Country governments should warranty that will NOT HAPPEN --Dagoflores 03:13, 19 March 2006 (EST)
Could material be adapted from existing open sourced documents and then of course edited for accuracy? Obviously for in-depth course studies this would not be an option,
- Actually, we can get high-quality, in-depth materials. There are a number of free textbooks, and we can make the pitch to academic authors that getting to hundreds of millions of children should be worth more than money.--Mokurai 22:07, 17 October 2006 (EDT)
but on certain more limited topics, would this be a possibility? This would of course eliminate all costs but editing/verification. What makes me consider this is certain articles/items from the various Wiki* that are well written, in-depth, and well cited. --Daniel Patterson (dbpatterson at exeter dot edu) 16:41, 2 September 2006 (EST)
- Or we could just package Wiki* mirrors on village servers in places without full-time Internet.
온라인 북 (eg. Ambleside Online)
Ableside Online http://amblesideonline.org/01sch.shtml과 같이 초중고생을 위한 완전한 커리큘럼을 구성함으로써, 종이 도서의 필요성을 제거할 수 있습니다. 위키피디어도 좋은 출발점입니다.
Ableside Online http://amblesideonline.org/01sch.shtml has a complete curriculum from K-12 using living books as the foundation. Most of these books are already past copyright, and a majority of them are already in electronic format. This is part of that project. Charlotte Mason's eductional philosophy is the foundation of the Ambleside Online book list. CM believed in using living books instead of textbooks, so that would eliminate the need for textbooks completly. Math would be the exception, but there are old math textbooks that are already scanned in, eg. http://www.donpotter.net/math.htm. Also, current science and history from the last 100 years would need to be addressed, but sites like wikipedia could provide the foundation to start with.
어린이들이 서로 도와 각자의 관심을 추구할 수 있도록 돕기 위해, 이를 어떻게 지우너할 것인지, 어떤 툴이 필요한지, 커리큘럼을 어떻게 재구성할지 등이 진지하게 연구되어야 합니다.
The OLPC enables new, more customized environments for learning. New communities of learners can be enabled because every child will have a laptop and the laptops will have connectivity. The borders of the classroom walls are removed and learners can get information, work with others, pursue their interests and passions, and work in ways previously not possible. How to support this, what tools are needed, how to re-arrange the curriculum, are all areas for serious study.
OLPC는 전혀 새로운 프로젝트이므로, 여러 사상가들의 연구들을 검토하고, 논의하며, 무엇이 작동하고, 무엇이 개선의 여지가 있으며, 어떤 새로운 가능성이 있는 지를 찾아볼 것을 강력히 권고합니다. 또한, 이 그룹은 교육 분야에 국한하지 말아야 합니다. 우리는 다른 지성인들, 예술가들, 시민 지도자들을 포함하여, 다양한 경험과 전문지식을 나눌 것을 제안합니다.
OLPC is new. Very little experience exists regarding how to use one laptop per child effectively. There is virtually no experience with this in developing countries. Thus, it is highly recommended that an ongoing panel of thinkers study, reflect, discuss, and propose based upon what is working, what needs improvement, and what new possibilities are enabled. It is also highly recommended that this group be broad-based, not limited only to those in the education field. We propose including other intellectuals, artists, civic leaders in order to provide a diversity of experience and expertise.