Translating/HowTo/lang-zh

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  翻譯 Translating/HowTo 原文  
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This is an on-going translation


参加翻译应该是一个很有趣而且也会有回报的工作。但是WIKI自己的一些易变特性可能会给翻译工作造成一些困难。这些问题可以通过下面的一些简单的规则和标准的处理模示来克服。同时希望也可以帮助任何人不受影响的加入这个过程,并享受其中的快乐。

这个翻译模板可以让您更好的理解这个过程,所以这个帮助文件是做翻译最好指导。当你开始新的一页时,把{{translations}}放在页面内,并且按照下面的步骤保存新的文件和相关的页面。下面的一些内容已经不是最新的了,所以有时看起来会有一些别扭


具体步骤

从下面开始,有三个基本步骤去完成一个翻译工作:


检查源文件

我们假设你要翻译一个由OLPC维护的页面。这种页面应该包括一个{{OLPC}} 模板;而且页面所属的给也是Category:Pages maintained by OLPC;通常这种页面都被放在很明显的位置,方便大家访问。

如果这个页面已经包括了语言条,你可以跳过这一步直接去 #修改语言条

[[Original page]] (translated page does not exist—yet)
{{OLPC}}

== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah

添加语言条

如果你真的找到一页从来没有被翻译过的页面,在翻译前你应该在这个页面添加一个语言条为其它的翻译者提供方便。

[[Original page]] (translated page does not exist—yet)
{{OLPC}}
{{Translations}}

== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah

翻译设置

You should follow the [[Original page/translations]] link in order to edit the page that groups the translations of a particular page, and should look something like this:

使用 [[Original page/translations]] 链接可以把要翻译的页面放在一个特定的组时。这个链接应该看起来象下面的样子:

[[Original page/translations]]
[[Original page|english]] | [[Original page/lang-xx|shortNativeName]]

加入之后,你就会看到一个红色的链接。这种情况表明这个链接不存在或链接有问题。不用担心这个,因为这就是你将要翻译的页面。下面一步你就可以改正这个链接错误。

提示: 你应该先使用 "The OLPC Wiki/lang-es"。 如果你想把页面放在正确的语言下面 (如: El Wiki de la OLPC" ),你可以使用WIKI的移动("move")功能; WIKI将自动生成一个重定向链接,这样语言链接就下确了。(当前有一些问题,有一些页面不能按预想的工作。不过大部分都是因为在翻译过和中没有正确的格式所造成的。就象前面提到的,在翻译中使用 /lang-xx 结构还是有很多优势的。


修改语言条

下面是一个标准语言条的例子。需要被翻译的页面应该在语言条的右侧显示 +/- 链接(不过在这个例子中没有).这个链接是用来编辑语言条的。要在语言条上增加一门新的语言,你可以点未这个链接打开编辑页面,添加正确的语言代码。

当你把这个链接加入你的页面时,保证 /lang-xx 按字母顺序排列。(就是说,如果你加入德语 /lang-de,它应该在英语 (English&mdashen) 之前)。同时保证在 '|'前后加入空格来分隔语言。请参考 # 检查源文件/翻译设置

Setting up the translated page

虽然翻译可以自由决定怎样翻译WIKI,但他们必须遵守一条规则。那就是被翻译的页面必须使用{{Translation}}.

当然也有很多各种各样的建议可以帮助改善翻译工作。第一,保证页面内的链接简单易懂。第二,在翻译中适量保留原文可以帮助理解和维护。

翻译最快的方法是去WIKI页面,通过编辑或查看源码(当页面被保护时,你只有用这种方法)来复制wiki-text。之后粘贴到新的页面中。

添加 Translation template

[[Original page]] [[Original page/lang-xx]]
(translated page name)
{{OLPC}}
{{Translations}}


== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah
{{OLPC}}
{{Translation
 | lang = xx
 | source = Original page
 | version = yyyy}}

== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah

想要理解所有的参数,请参考下面的[#Notes|Notes]]. 简单来说: lang — 是语言代码IANA language code (通常是2位代码,没有其它的信息$mdash;如: 使用 lang-pt-BR (brazilian portuguese), 而用 lang-pt (portuguese)—这样可以使事情简单明了。)

添加 正在翻译模版

[[Original page]] [[Original page/lang-xx]]
(translated page name)
{{OLPC}}
{{Translations}}


== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah
{{OLPC}}
{{Translation
 | lang = xx
 | source = Original page
 | version = yyyy}}
{{Ongoing Translation}}

== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah

这个模版 {{Ongoing Translation}} 的主要目的是让读者意识到看到的这个页面还没有完成,这样他们就可以理解一些没有被翻译的句子和一些不太确定的地方。同时如果有多人在同时翻译,也可以让其它的翻译人员更容易处理在 Ongoing Translation category 中寻找,检查和更正。

翻译标题部分

当翻译一个标题时,最好的是就把他们标记为 anchors,然后再添加相应的标题。

举例来说, 如果有一个标题叫做 “Some Section Header"。把它翻译成德文就是" Einige Paragraph Kopfzeile "原文中 “Some Section Header" 是被像下面的大括号标识出来的。

   {{anchor|Some Section Header}}

之后把翻译文字 "Einige Paragraph Kopfzeile" 放在标识 之后.这样之后就看起来像下面这样。

    {{anchor|Some Section Header}} 
== Einige Paragraph Kopfzeile ==
[[Original page]] [[Original page/lang-xx]]
(translated page name)
{{OLPC}}
{{Translations}}


== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah
{{OLPC}}
{{Translation
 | lang = xx
 | source = Original page
 | version = yyyy}}
{{Ongoing Translation}}

{{anchor|Some header}}
== Un titular ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah {{anchor|Another header}} == Otro titular == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah

翻译链接

当翻译一个链接时,原来的标识都是一种叫做 “管道链接”的方式表示的。在原方后加入相应的翻译文字,之间用 "|" 符号分隔,这样两个文字就通过一个管道连接到了一起。如下面的例子: "some-link" 在德文中被翻译成 "einieg-link",翻译之后的链接应该是下面的样子。

   [[some-link|einige-link]]

之后,"einige-link" 就被链接到 "some-link",但读者只能看到翻译过的文字就是 "einige-link"

链接页面到特定的语言

当你想把一个页面链接到一个特定的语言页面时,可以使用 /lang-xx 来特别指出相就的翻译,就象下面一样:

   [[some-link/lang-de|einige-link]]

翻译文字

当你翻译文字时,一个很有用的方法就是把原文用 {{Translated text}} 加入到你的翻译文字中去。 "dispaly="value" 可以控制原文是否显示。

Original text invisible to reader (display = none).

   
    {{ Translated text |   
           original text
           more original text
           yet more original text
           final original text
       | display = none }}
    


Original text visible to reader (display = block).

   
    {{ Translated text |
           original text
           more original text
           yet more original text
           final original text     
       | display = block }}
    

可以能过 here 获得更多信息.


[[Original page]] [[Original page/lang-xx]]
(translated page name)
{{OLPC}}
{{Translations}}


== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah
{{OLPC}}
{{Translation
 | lang = xx
 | source = Original page
 | version = yyyy}}
{{Ongoing Translation}}

{{anchor|Some header}}
== Un titular ==

Algo de texto bla... 
bla... [[#Another header|Otro titular]]
... blah {{ Translated text | Some text blah...
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah | display = block}} {{anchor|Another header}} == Otro titular == Algo más de texto bla...
bla... [[Another page/lang-xx|Otra página]]
y [[Another page/lang-xx#section|sección]]
... bla {{ Translated text | Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah | display = block}}

如何处理不存在的翻译页面 Handling translated links that point to a non-existant page

当你开始翻译时,你所翻译的所有的链接页面可能都不存在。不过别担心,有两种方法处理这种情况:

  • 让wiki处理这些页面 Special:Wantedpages
  • 让最新的翻译页面起作用: 决定重定向

第一种方法是最简单的,但同时对读者来说也是最困难的(读者最好的选择是"建立一个新的wiki页").另一个很不方便的地方就是当这些需要翻译的页面在 "wiki中自然缺失的页面 (这是wiki的一些历史原因造成的)“ 或 ”其它语言缺失的翻译页面“中时, 读者很难准确的发现到底是那一个语言翻译页面缺失引起的问题。

第二个方法是我们推荐的,就是把 {{subst:requesttranslation}} 模版加到相对的目标页里。

The second, recommended alternative, is to add the {{subst:requesttranslation}} template to the target page. This self-substitutes with the replacement:

[[Another page/lang-xx|annuder paij]]
#REDIRECT [[Another page]]
[[Category:Translations wanted lang-xx]]
{{translation | lang = es | source = Another page | status = wanted }}

注释: 最后一个选项只有在"inline translation instructions"中的语言不是红的时才存在。用这个链接并且参考英语和西班牙语,可以使用一个模版叫做 "translation/no translation/lang-xx ", 来建立你需要的语言的简介。


注意: 一定要确定原文没有被链接到重定向页面。如果原文被重定向了,你应该把你的翻译文章改为real page and create there the /lang-xx subpage. 如果 [[Foo]] 被重定向到了[[Bar]], 你应该建立一个 [[Bar/lang-xx]]并且把更新相应的链接.不要用 [[Foo/lang-xx]]

这样做有三个目的:一是读者至少可以找到正确的页面(可能不是正确的翻译页面);二是可以简单的使用 Category找到缺失的页面;第三是可以使用 toolbox中的what links here查找有多少相关的文章需要这个页面,这也可以使大家更能体会到这页到底有多重要。这样可以使翻译工作更有效。

请不要/translations中添加 ‘’fake translation redirects,因这样对不存在的翻译工作没有任何价值。只有当 REDIRECT 到一个真正的正在翻译或其它已经完成的页面。同时在语言条上加上相应链接。

一个完整wiki例子 Full example of a wiki-page

Anatomy of a wiki-page

This 'sample' page includes all of the elements that require some level of consideration when translating
[[Original page]] Notes on the structure
{{OLPC}}

== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah

== Some header == 
section headers act as anchors, and their translation is sensitive as they anchor incomming links.
[[#Another header]] 
intra-page section linking may be simple to maintain as it's within the same page (you can search&replace local references) but will break external inbound links if changed.
[[Another page]] 
the most common problem with links to other pages is to know how the page title has been translated...
[[Another page#section|section]] 
links to specific sections in other pages pose the conflated problem of knowing both the target page name and the section name's translations.

Full finished example

[[Original page]] [[Original page/lang-xx]]
(translated page name)
Translated text deleted...
(not really recommended)
{{OLPC}}
{{Translations}}


== Some header ==

Some text blah... 
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah == Another header == Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah
{{OLPC}}
{{Translation
 | lang = xx
 | source = Original page
 | version = yyyy}}
{{Ongoing Translation}}

{{anchor|Some header}}
== Un titular ==

Algo de texto bla... 
bla... [[#Another header|Otro titular]]
... blah {{ Translated text | Some text blah...
blah... [[#Another header]]
... blah | display = block}} {{anchor|Another header}} == Otro titular == Algo más de texto bla...
bla... [[Another page/lang-xx|Otra página]]
y [[Another page/lang-xx#section|sección]]
... bla {{ Translated text | Some other text blah...
blah... [[Another page]]
and [[Another page#section|section]]
... blah | display = block}}
{{OLPC}}
{{Translation
 | lang = xx
 | source = Original page
 | version = yyyy}}

{{anchor|Some header}}
== Un titular ==

Algo de texto bla... 
bla... [[#Another header|Otro titular]]
... blah {{anchor|Another header}} == Otro titular == Algo más de texto bla...
bla... [[Another page/lang-xx|Otra página]]
y [[Another page/lang-xx#section|sección]]
... bla

Supporting pages:

[[Original page/translations]]
[[Original page|english]] | [[Original page/lang-xx|shortNativeName]]
[[Another page/lang-xx]] [[Another page]]
#REDIRECT [[Another page]]
[[Category:Missing translation]]
some untranslated page...
maybe the content is mutating rapidly,
or is peripheric to the main corpus, etc.

Notes

shortNativeName 
should be in the native language; español instead of spanish.

Translation template notes

For the full documentation, please see Template:Translation.

lang 
This parameter identifies the target language of the translation. See ISO 639 for a select list of codes being used in the wiki. (Another source is IANA's lang codes).
It serves several purposes, and is used in several contexts although it should be done in a homogeneous way.
We are currently using ISO 639-1 codes (two-letter codes).

source 
is the name of the page (not the link—in other words, without the enclosing square brackets).

version 
Each original page has a unique version number. These version numbers appear on the far right of the 'blue language navigation bar', and appear in the form: [ID# yyyyy]
When a page edit is submitted, the version number for that particular page is incremented.
A translated page on the other hand does not have a visible version number on its own. It must be manually assigned by the translator when an edit is submitted. The version number of a translated page is the same as the version number of the original page which it is based on.
For example if the original page has a version number ID# 54321, and the translatation is based on this particular version, the translated page is given the version number ID# 54321.
The version number for the translated page is entered at the top of the page as a parameter for the {{Translation}} function.
{{ Translation
| lang = de
| source = Translating/HowTo
| version = 54321 }}
There is one use which results directly from the above manual assignment of a version number to the translated page. It allows the translator to easily lookup what new translations are needed by following the 'changes' link located to the far right of the 'blue language navigation bar'.
Suppose translator 'A' is making a translation of page Bitfrost with version number ID# 65535 into español. As per this guide, translator 'A' assigns version number ID# 65535 to the Bitfrost/lang-es español translated page. Meanwhile editor 'B' arrives and edits the original Bitfrost page and its version number is incremented to ID# 65536. Translator 'A' then can see what new translations are necessary by followoing the 'changes' link located on the blue nav bar. The 'changes' link compares the differences of two versions of the original page ID# 65535 and ID# 65536. By observing the resulting output, translator 'A' could easily see what new text needs to be translated.

Translated text template notes

display 
is used to show or hide the enclosed translated text.
While doing the translation, it comes in handy for comparing the original with the translation. When finished, you can replace the block with none and the source text is not displayed. Although it adds quite a bit of text and 'noise' to the source of the translated page, it comes in handy when trying to update or synchronize it with any changes in the original page—after all, this IS a wiki and pages are supposed to mutate!
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